Non-Projecting Words

A Case Study of Swedish Particles

  • Ida┬áToivonen

Part of the Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory book series (SNLT, volume 58)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 1-14
  3. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 15-52
  4. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 53-83
  5. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 84-111
  6. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 112-158
  7. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 159-188
  8. Ida Toivonen
    Pages 189-196
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 197-237

About this book


Focusing primarily on Swedish, a Germanic language whose particles have not previously been studied extensively, Non-Projecting Words: A Case Study on Swedish Particles develops a theory of non-projecting words in which particles are morphologically independent words that do not project phrases.
Particles have long constituted a puzzle for Germanic syntax, as they exhibit properties of both morphological and syntactic constructs. Although non-projecting words have appeared in the literature before, it has gone largely unnoticed that such structures violate the basic tenets of X-bar theory. This work identifies these violations and develops a formally explicit revision of X-bar theory that can accommodate the requisite "weak" projections.
The resulting theory, stated in terms of Lexical-Functional Grammar, also yields a novel classification of clitics, and it sheds new light on a range of recent theoretical proposals, including economy, multi-word constructions, and the primitives of lexical semantics. At an abstract level, we see that the modular, parallel-projection architecture of LFG is essential to the description of a variety of otherwise recalcitrant facts about non-projecting words.


English German Index Morphological Syntax functional grammar grammar language semantics subject syntactic

Authors and affiliations

  • Ida┬áToivonen
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CanterburyNew Zealand

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Kluwer Academic Publishers 2003
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-1-4020-1532-8
  • Online ISBN 978-94-010-0053-6
  • Series Print ISSN 0924-4670
  • Buy this book on publisher's site