© 1982

Scientific Establishments and Hierarchies

  • Norbert Elias
  • Herminio Martins
  • Richard Whitley

Part of the Sociology of the Sciences a Yearbook book series (SOSC, volume 6)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Scientific and Other Establishments

  3. Establishments and Hierarchies in the Development of Scientific Knowledge

  4. Establishing Boundaries and Hierarchies in the Sciences

  5. Back Matter
    Pages 359-369

About this book


In recent years sociologists of sciences have become more interested in scien­ tific elites, in the way they direct and control the development of sciences and, beyond that, in which the organization of research facilities and resources generally affects research strategies and goals. In this volume we focus on scientific establishments and hierarchies as a means of bringing aspects of these concerns together in their historical and comparative contexts. These terms draw attention to the fact that much scientific work has been pursued within a highly specific organizational setting, that of universities and aca­ demic research institutes. The effects of this organizational setting as well as its power relations, and its resources in relation to governmental and other non-scientific establishments in society at large, deserve closer attention. One significant aspect of scientific establishments and hierarchies and of the power relations impinging upon scientific research, is the fact that the bulk of leading scientists have the professional career, qualifications and status of a professor. As heads or senior members of departments, institutes and laboratories, professors form the ruling groups of scientific work. They are the main defenders of scientific - or departmental - autonomy, accept or resist innovations in their field, play a leading part in fighting scientific controversies or establishing consensus. Even where research units are not directly controlled by professors, authority structures usually remain strongly hierarchical. These hierarchies too deserve attention in any explora­ tion of the social characteristics of scientific knowledge and its production.


Figuration Hierarchie Institution Nation artificial intelligence biology

Editors and affiliations

  • Norbert Elias
    • 1
  • Herminio Martins
    • 2
  • Richard Whitley
    • 3
  1. 1.Universities of Leicester and BielefeldUK
  2. 2.University of OxfordUK
  3. 3.Manchester Business SchoolUniversity of ManchesterEngland

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Scientific Establishments and Hierarchies
  • Editors N. Elias
    H. Martins
    Richard P. Whitley
  • Series Title Sociology of the Sciences a Yearbook
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 1982
  • Publisher Name Springer, Dordrecht
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-90-277-1322-3
  • Softcover ISBN 978-90-277-1323-0
  • eBook ISBN 978-94-009-7729-7
  • Series ISSN 0167-2320
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XIV, 369
  • Number of Illustrations 0 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Social History
  • Buy this book on publisher's site