Land Subsidence Analysis in Urban Areas

The Bangkok Metropolitan Area Case Study

  • David G. Zeitoun
  • Eliyahu Wakshal

Part of the Springer Environmental Science and Engineering book series (SPRINGERENVIRON)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 1-8
  3. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 9-23
  4. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 25-74
  5. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 75-117
  6. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 119-174
  7. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 175-195
  8. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 197-207
  9. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 209-263
  10. David G. Zeitoun, Eliyahu Wakshal
    Pages 265-269
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 271-307

About this book


Cities built on unconsolidated sediments consisting of clays, silt, peat, and sand, are particularly susceptible to subsidence.  Such regions are common in delta areas, where rivers empty into the oceans, along flood plains adjacent to rivers, and in coastal marsh lands.  Building cities in such areas aggravates the problem for several reasons:

1.  Construction of buildings and streets adds weight to the region causing additional soil deformations.

2.  Often the regions have to be drained in order to be occupied.  This results in lowering of the water table and leads to hydro-compaction.

3. Often the groundwater is used as a source of water for both human consumption and industrial use. 

4. Levees and dams are often built to prevent or control flooding.

Earth fissures caused by ground failure in areas of uneven or differential compaction have damaged buildings, roads and highways, railroads, flood-control structures and sewer lines. As emphasized by Barends , "in order to develop a legal framework to claims and litigation, it is essential that direct and indirect causes of land subsidence effects can be quantified with sufficient accuracy from a technical and scientific point of view."

Most existing methods and software applications treat the subsidence problem by analyzing one of the causes.  This is due to the fact that the causes appear at different spatial scales. For example, over-pumping creates large scale subsidence, while building loading creates local subsidence/consolidation only.

Then, maximum permissible land subsidence (or consolidation) is a constraint in different management problems such as: groundwater management, planning of town and/or laws on building construction. It is, therefore, necessary to quantify the contribution of each cause to soil subsidence of the ground surface in cities urban area.

In this text book, we present an engineering approach based on the Biot system of equations to predict the soil settlement due to subsidence, resulting from different causes. Also we present a case study of The Bangkok Metropolitan Area (BMA).


Foundation Engineering Geotechnical Engineering in Urban Areas Hydrogeology Land Subsidence Soil Mechanics Urban Planning

Authors and affiliations

  • David G. Zeitoun
    • 1
  • Eliyahu Wakshal
    • 2
  1. 1.ED TechnologyJerusalemIsrael
  2. 2., Faculty of AgricultureThe Hebrew University of JerusalemRehovotIsrael

Bibliographic information

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