© 2015

Knowledge and virtue in early Stoicism


Part of the Studies in the History of Philosophy of Mind book series (SHPM, volume 10)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 1-18
  3. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 19-41
  4. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 43-65
  5. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 67-88
  6. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 89-111
  7. Håvard Løkke
    Pages 113-128
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 129-149

About this book


This book is about the epistemological views and arguments of the early Stoics. It discusses such questions as: How is knowledge possible, and what is it? How do we perceive things and acquire notions of them? Should we rely on arguments? How do we come to make so many mistakes?

The author tries to give a comprehensive and conservative account of Stoic epistemology as a whole as it was developed by Chrysippus. He emphasizes how the epistemological views of the Stoics are interrelated among themselves and with views from Stoic physics and logic.

There are a number of Stoic views and arguments that we will never know about. But there are passages on Stoic epistemology in Sextus Empiricus, Galen, Plutarch, Cicero, and a few others authors. The book is like a big jigsaw puzzle of these scattered pieces of evidence.


Arcesilaus Carneades Chrysippus Cicero Cognitive impression Commitment Criterion of truth Emotions Epictetus Experience Knowledge Memory Pneuma Preconception Progress Realism Sayable Seneca Sense perception Socrates Stoic epistemology Stoic ethics Thought Virtue Zeno

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University of AgderOsloNorway

About the authors

Håvard Løkke is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Agder, Norway. He wrote his DPhil thesis in Oxford on Stoic epistemology, with Michael Frede as supervisor. He is currently writing a book on love.

Bibliographic information