About these proceedings
This volume of the Keio University International Symposia for LifeSciences and Medicine contains the proceedings of the eleventh symposium held under the sponsorship of the Keio University Medical Science Fund. As explained in the Opening Remarks by the President of Keio University, the fund was established by the generous donation of Dr. Mitsunada Sakaguchi. The Keio University International Symposia for Life Sciences and Medicine constitute one of the core activities sponsored by the fund, the objective of which is to contribute to the international community by developing human resources, promoting scientific knowledge, and encouraging mutual exchange. Each year, the Committee of the International Symposia for Life Sciences and Medicine selects the most significant symposium topic from applications received from the Keio medical community. The publication of the proceedings is intended to publicize and disseminate the information arising from the lively discussions of the most exciting and current issues presented during the symposium. On behalf of the Committee, I am most grateful to Dr. Mitsunada Sakaguchi, who made the symposia series possible. Weare also grateful to the prominent speakers for their contribution to this volume. In addition,wewould liketo acknowledge the efficientorganizational work performed by the members of the program committee and the staff of the fund. Naoki Aikawa,M.D.,D.M.Sc., EA.C.S.
Neuro-otology audiology neurosurgery otolaryngology surgery