Computing with Words in Information/Intelligent Systems 1


  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
  • Janusz Kacprzyk

Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 33)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XIII
  2. Introductory Sections

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Lotfi A. Zadeh
      Pages 3-23
    3. Didier Dubois, Laurent Foulloy, Sylvie Galichet, Henri Prade
      Pages 24-49
    4. Leonid Reznik
      Pages 78-89
  3. Computing with Words: Linguistic Aspects

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 91-91
    2. Burghard B. Rieger
      Pages 93-118
    3. Michael J. Smithson
      Pages 119-135
    4. Vladimir Dimitrov, Bob Hodge
      Pages 136-153
  4. Computing with Words and Information Granularity

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 181-181
    2. Lech Polkowski, Andrzej Skowron
      Pages 201-228
    3. R. De Caluwe, F. Devos, P. Maesfranckx, G. De Tré, B. Van der Cruyssen
      Pages 229-256
  5. Computing with Words: Logical Aspects

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 257-257
    2. Walenty Ostasiewicz
      Pages 259-296
    3. E. Ferri, A. Kandel, G. Langholz
      Pages 297-325
    4. E. Czogała, J. Łęski
      Pages 342-357
  6. Computing with Words: Numerical Aspects

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 407-407
    2. Milan Mareš, Radko Mesiar
      Pages 409-427
    3. M. Delgado, F. Herrera, E. Herrera-Viedma, J. L. Verdegay, M. A. Vila
      Pages 428-440
  7. General Frameworks for Computing with Words

  8. Back Matter
    Pages 518-518

About this book


The volume is the first one in the world literature which is a comprehensive, up to date account on computing with words, a new direction in broadly perceived intelligent systems, proposed and advocated by Professor Zadeh, the founder of fuzzy sets theory and fuzzy logic. Historically, computing was focused on manipulation of numbers. However, in recent years it became more and more obvious that computing had been encompassing not only this, but also manipulation on signal, sounds, images and text; the latter aspects of computing are becoming more and more relevant. However, the traditional manipulation of text (e.g., machine translation, spell checking, etc.) does not cover the mainstream of computing with words, mainly the representation and manipulation of propositions from natural language describing operations and relations. Such problems cannot be solved by conventional methods of logic, probability theory and numerical analysis. Fuzzy logic is shown to be an effective tool to handle such problems.
Computing with words may form a basis of a computational theory of perceptions inspired by a remarkable human ability to perform a wide variety of tasks just on the basis of vague and imprecise information expressed in natural language.
In Part 1 foundations of computing with words related to linguistic aspects, fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning, granularity, calculations on verbal quantities, and general architectures for the implementation of computing with words are presented.


computational linguistics fuzzy fuzzy logic fuzzy sets information processing intelligent systems linguistics modeling natural language networks perception semantics service-oriented computing simulation uncertainty

Editors and affiliations

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
    • 1
  • Janusz Kacprzyk
    • 2
  1. 1.Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing (BISC) Computer Science Division and Electronics Research Laboratory Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and Computer ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Systems Research InstitutePolish Academy of SciencesWarsawPoland

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 1999
  • Publisher Name Physica, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-662-11362-2
  • Online ISBN 978-3-7908-1873-4
  • Series Print ISSN 1434-9922
  • Series Online ISSN 1860-0808
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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