This book offers a comprehensive review of the far-reaching social changes that have taken place since the start of the Chinese economic reform and opening up of Chinese society over 30 years ago. As such, it examines various aspects of the social transformation of China, from urbanization, population aging and social governance to family structure, youth society and social mentality. It identifies major issues and challenges emerging during the process of the great social change, and proposes solutions to aid in future strategic planning. The analysis is supported by a wealth of empirical data collected in the course of extended social survey research. The book also provides a systematic summary of the most important research findings from the past few years, helping readers to understand and interpret the ongoing and complex process of transformation in Chinese society.