© 1972

Ontogenesis of the Skeleton and Intrinsic Muscles of the Human Hand and Foot

Conference proceedings

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages II-6
  2. Radomír Čihák
    Pages 7-9
  3. Radomír Čihák
    Pages 10-12
  4. Radomír Čihák
    Pages 158-165
  5. Radomír Čihák
    Pages 165-177
  6. Radomír Čihák
    Pages 177-189
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 190-194

About these proceedings


The aim of the present publication is to summarize the results of studies of ontogenesis of the skeleton and muscles of the human hand and foot. Our primary interest in studying the muscles arose from observations of variations, in which a new form of the anomalous muscle in the popliteal fossa had been described (Cihak, 1954; Hnevkovsky and Cihak, 1957) and in which changes of muscle forms in the congenitally malformed extremity had also been studied (Brlickova and Cihak, 1956). The desire to clarify muscle variations by means of the onto­ genesis led to a study of ontogenesis of single muscles. During observation of the embryonic pectoralis major special muscle bundles were primarily observed, which could be homologised with the sphincter colli muscle of lower Mammals. Further observation revealed that this muscle (concordantly with its phylo­ genetic development) gradually develops in the course of human ontogenesis from a small primordium to its maximal extent and becomes reduced thereafter and finally disappears, still during the embryonic period (Cihak, 1957). This study was decisive for the further development of our theme, since it demonstra­ tes, how consistently in the development of the locomotor apparatus the rule of recapitulation is asserted and how this can be employed in developmental studies of muscles.


Hand development embryo mammals ontogenesis skeleton

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnatomyCharles University Medical FacultyPragueCzech Republic

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Ontogenesis of the Skeleton and Intrinsic Muscles of the Human Hand and Foot
  • Authors Radomir Cihak
  • Series Title Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte / Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology / Revues d’anatomie et de morphologie expérimentale
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1972
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-540-05673-7
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-662-09081-7
  • Series ISSN 0301-5556
  • Series E-ISSN 2192-7065
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages , 194
  • Number of Illustrations 174 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Medicine/Public Health, general
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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