Measuring Country Image

Theory, Method, and Effects

  • Alexander Buhmann

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages I-XVI
  2. Alexander Buhmann
    Pages 17-26
  3. Alexander Buhmann
    Pages 81-100
  4. Alexander Buhmann
    Pages 119-132
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 133-163

About this book


Alexander Buhmann develops a new model for measuring the constitution and effects of country images by combining well-established concepts from national identity theory and attitude theory with a recent model from reputation management. The model is operationalized and tested in two surveys. Results show how different cognitive and affective dimensions of the country image affect each other and ultimately lead to the facilitation of behavioral intentions. The book introduces a theory-grounded approach to clarify the dimensionality of the country image. It is the first to operationalize and test the dimensions of the country image by combining formative and reflective measures in a mixed-specified model.


  • Towards an integrative model of the country image
  • A variance-based approach for PR measurement and evaluation
  • From model to measurement
  • The constitution and effects of country image and identity

Target Groups

  • Researchers and students of Social Sciences and Communication Studies
  • Practitioners in International Public Relations and Public Diplomacy  

The Author

Dr. Alexander Buhmann is Assistant Professor at the Norwegian Business School, Oslo. He received his doctorate at the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland. His research focuses on Public Relations, Corporate Communications, and Public Diplomacy


Public Relations Public Diplomacy Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling Nation Branding County-of-Origin

Authors and affiliations

  • Alexander Buhmann
    • 1
  1. 1.BI Norwegian Business School OsloNorway

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