Identities in Civil Conflict

How Ethnicity, Religion and Ideology Jointly Affect Rebellion

  • Eva Bernauer

Part of the Studien zur Neuen Politischen Ökonomie book series (NPÖ)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages 1-15
  2. Eva Bernauer
    Pages 17-22
  3. "National Political Exclusion and Supportof Rebel Groups"

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 23-23
    2. Eva Bernauer
      Pages 109-143
  4. Transnational Support of Rebel Groups

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 145-145
    2. Eva Bernauer
      Pages 157-164
    3. Eva Bernauer
      Pages 165-188
    4. Eva Bernauer
      Pages 189-208
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 209-246

About this book


Eva Bernauer predicts civil conflicts based upon the political exclusion of identity groups and their transnational links to external governments. The innovation lies in a simultaneous consideration of three identities – ethnicity, religion, and class-based ideology – thus extending previous studies with merely an ethnic focus. Most importantly, such a perspective implies a shift towards a society’s unique three-dimensional identity setup, upon which the excluded population and their transnational links can be determined. The author presents original data on the three-dimensional identity setup for 57 countries and introduces a formal model where rebel leaders strategically use identities to garner the support of the population. Key quantities of interest, such as the largest excluded subgroup or the number of identity links to external governments, are tested in several quantitative analyses as predictors for the onset of civil conflicts. The author shows that there is an added value of extending the mere ethnic perspective to also encompass religion and class-based ideology. 


  • National Political Exclusion and Support of Rebel Groups
  • Transnational Support of Rebel Groups

Target Groups

  • Researchers and students of political science  
  • Practitioners who work on the causes of civil conflict 

The Author

Eva Bernauer received her doctor’s degree from the University of Mannheim.



Civil war Ethnic conflict Class Transnational linkages Demography

Authors and affiliations

  • Eva Bernauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Universität MannheimMannheimGermany

Bibliographic information