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Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages 1-7
  2. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 8-9
  3. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 31-36
  4. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 37-58
  5. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 59-65
  6. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 66-79
  7. Ulrich Speck
    Pages 118-120
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 121-139

About this book

Introduction

Contrast media in diagnostic imaging 8 Visualization of functions 8 • Morphology 9 • General principles of X-ray contrast media 10 13 Structure and properties of X-ray contrast media Barium sulfate 13 Water-soluble contrast media 14 Chemical structure, biological behavior and use 14 • Conventional, highly hypertonic contrast media 15 • Low-osmolar contrast media, especially non ionic substances 15 • Nonionic contrast media 16 Osmolality and side effects caused by hypertonicity 18 Ionic contrast media 20 21 Contrast media for intravenous cholegraphy • Contrast media for oral cholegraphy 22 • Cations 23 • Synthesis of water-soluble contrast media 25 • Physicochemical properties of water-soluble contrast media 26 26 Water solubility ViscositylTemperature 26 27 Osmolality Hydrophilia/Lipophilia 28 Electrical charge 29 29 Others Possible uses of X-ray contrast media 31 Principles of opacification 31 Pharmaceutical product quality 37 37 Practical information at a glance Purity of the active ingredient, by-and degradation products 38 Formulations 40 5 Additives 40 Microbiological quality of the finished product 42 • Production under controlled environmental conditions 42 • Production process 44 • Sterile filtration, ultrafiltration and sterilization 46 • Sterility test 47 • Test for pyrogens 47 Preservation of product quality in hospitals and practices 48 • Stability in long-term storage and at different temperatures 49 • Sensitivity to irradiation and light; white glass, brown glass, UV-protective foil 50 • Tests for contamination with particles 52 • Risks of microbial contamination 54 • Transferring the contrast medium to sterile containers, disposable syringes, automatic injectors 55

Keywords

X-ray anemia contrast agent diagnostic imaging magnetic resonance magnetic resonance imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pharmacology radiation ultrasound

Editors and affiliations

  • Ulrich Speck
    • 1
  1. 1.BerlinGermany

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-85995-3
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-540-65712-5
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-85995-3
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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