© 2012

Fault Analysis in Cryptography

  • Marc Joye
  • Michael Tunstall

Part of the Information Security and Cryptography book series (ISC)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvi
  2. Introductory Material

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Elisabeth Oswald, François-Xavier Standaert
      Pages 3-15
  3. Fault Analysis in Secret Key Cryptography

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 17-17
    2. Christophe Clavier
      Pages 19-35
    3. Matthieu Rivain
      Pages 37-54
    4. Jörn-Marc Schmidt, Marcel Medwed
      Pages 73-87
    5. Kaouthar Bousselam, Giorgio Di Natale, Marie-Lise Flottes, Bruno Rouzeyre
      Pages 89-108
  4. Fault Analysis in Public Key Cryptography

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 109-109
    2. Alexandre Berzati, Cécile Canovas-Dumas, Louis Goubin
      Pages 111-124
    3. Chong Hee Kim, Jean-Jacques Quisquater
      Pages 125-136
    4. Abdulaziz Alkhoraidly, Agustín Domínguez-Oviedo, M. Anwar Hasan
      Pages 137-155
    5. Kahraman D. Akdemir, Zhen Wang, Mark Karpovsky, Berk Sunar
      Pages 171-199
    6. Phong Q. Nguyen, Mehdi Tibouchi
      Pages 201-220
    7. Nadia El Mrabet, Dan Page, Frederik Vercauteren
      Pages 221-236
  5. Miscellaneous

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 237-237
    2. Alessandro Barenghi, Elena Trichina
      Pages 239-255
    3. Francesco Regazzoni, Luca Breveglieri, Paolo Ienne, Israel Koren
      Pages 257-272

About this book


In the 1970s researchers noticed that radioactive particles produced by elements naturally present in packaging material could cause bits to flip in sensitive areas of electronic chips. Research into the effect of cosmic rays on semiconductors, an area of particular interest in the aerospace industry, led to methods of hardening electronic devices designed for harsh environments. Ultimately various mechanisms for fault creation and propagation were discovered, and in particular it was noted that many cryptographic algorithms succumb to so-called fault attacks.

Preventing fault attacks without sacrificing performance is nontrivial and this is the subject of this book. Part I deals with side-channel analysis and its relevance to fault attacks. The chapters in Part II cover fault analysis in secret key cryptography, with chapters on block ciphers, fault analysis of DES and AES, countermeasures for symmetric-key ciphers, and countermeasures against attacks on AES. Part III deals with fault analysis in public key cryptography, with chapters dedicated to classical RSA and RSA-CRT implementations, elliptic curve cryptosystems and countermeasures using fault detection, devices resilient to fault injection attacks, lattice-based fault attacks on signatures, and fault attacks on pairing-based cryptography. Part IV examines fault attacks on stream ciphers and how faults interact with countermeasures used to prevent power analysis attacks. Finally, Part V contains chapters that explain how fault attacks are implemented, with chapters on fault injection technologies for microprocessors, and fault injection and key retrieval experiments on a widely used evaluation board.

This is the first book on this topic and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners engaged with cryptographic engineering.


AES DES RSA block ciphers countermeasures cryptographic engineering differential fault analysis elliptic curve cryptosystems fault injection microprocessors public-key cryptography secret-key cryptography side-channel analysis

Editors and affiliations

  • Marc Joye
    • 1
  • Michael Tunstall
    • 2
  1. 1., Security & Content Protection LabsTechnicolorCesson-Sévigné CedexFrance
  2. 2.Dept. Computer ScienceUniversity of BristolBristolUnited Kingdom

About the editors

Dr. Marc Joye gained a Habilitation (HDR) degree in Computer Science from the Université de Toulouse II in 2003; from 1999 to 2006, he worked in the Card Security Group of Gemplus (now Gemalto), and he has been a member of the Security & Content Protection Labs of Technicolor since 2006; he has published over 100 scientific articles on many aspects of cryptology, including side-channel attacks and fault attacks. Dr. Mike Tunstall is a researcher in the Bristol Cryptography Group at the University of Bristol; his research interests include smart card security, secure embedded software design; fault-based differential cryptanalysis, fault attacks, and side-channel analysis.

Bibliographic information

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"Fault attacks is an active area of research in cryptography, currently explored in hundreds of research papers and dedicated conferences. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of the subject covering both the theory and practice of these attacks as well as defense techniques. ... Preventing fault attacks without sacrificing performance is nontrivial.  Over the years a number of innovative ideas have been proposed for efficiently verifying cryptographic computations. Many defense strategies are described in the book, some of which are already deployed in real-world cryptographic libraries. Nevertheless, many implementations remain vulnerable. I was thrilled to see the material covered in the book and hope that it will make fault defense standard practice in the minds of developers." (Dan Boneh, Stanford University)

"Among the well-studied side-channel analysis techniques, fault analysis might be the most powerful for recovering the secret value in the computation of a cryptographic algorithm. ... This book contains sufficient information for people who have not studied fault analysis before. It will be a handy book for self-study for both security engineers and academic researchers."  (Zheng Gong, Computing Reviews, October 11, 2012)