Computing with Words

Principal Concepts and Ideas

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh

Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 277)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages 1-10
  2. Introduction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Lotfi A. Zadeh
      Pages 3-37
  3. Computing with Words–How?

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 39-39
    2. Lotfi A. Zadeh
      Pages 41-72
    3. Lotfi A. Zadeh
      Pages 73-89
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 0--1

About this book


In essence, Computing with Words (CWW) is a system of computation in which the objects of computation are predominantly words, phrases and propositions drawn from a natural language. CWW is based on fuzzy logic. In science there is a deep-seated tradition of according much more respect to numbers than to words. In a fundamental way, CWW is a challenge to this tradition. What is not widely recognized is that, today, words are used in place of numbers in a wide variety of applications ranging from digital cameras and household appliances to fraud detection systems, biomedical instrumentation and subway trains. 

CWW offers a unique capability—the capability to precisiate natural language. Unprecisiated (raw) natural language cannot be computed with. A key concept which underlies precisiation of meaning is that of the meaning postulate: A proposition, p, is a restriction on the values which a variable, X—a variable which is implicit in p—is allowed to take.

CWW has an important ramification for mathematics. Addition of the formalism of CWW to mathematics empowers mathematics to construct mathematical solutions of computational problems which are stated in a natural language. Traditional mathematics does not have this capability.


Cointension Principle Computation Computing With Words Extension Principle Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy Logic Gambit Granulation Imprecision Linguistic Linguistic Summarization Natural Language Precisiation of Meaning Proposition Restriction Semantics Z-mouse

Authors and affiliations

  • Lotfi A. Zadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.University of California, BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Engineering Engineering (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-642-27472-5
  • Online ISBN 978-3-642-27473-2
  • Series Print ISSN 1434-9922
  • Series Online ISSN 1860-0808
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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