© 2010

Empirical Methods in Natural Language Generation

Data-oriented Methods and Empirical Evaluation

  • Emiel Krahmer
  • Mariët Theune
Book EACL 2009, ENLG 2009

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 5790)

Also part of the Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence book sub series (LNAI, volume 5790)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
  2. Text-to-Text Generation

    1. Stephen Wan, Mark Dras, Robert Dale, Cécile Paris
      Pages 13-44
    2. Erwin Marsi, Emiel Krahmer, Iris Hendrickx, Walter Daelemans
      Pages 45-66
  3. NLG in Interaction

  4. Referring Expression Generation

    1. Ross Turner, Somayajulu Sripada, Ehud Reiter
      Pages 121-140
    2. Robert Dale, Jette Viethen
      Pages 163-179
  5. Evaluation of NLG

    1. Aoife Cahill, Martin Forst
      Pages 201-221
    2. Ani Nenkova, Jieun Chae, Annie Louis, Emily Pitler
      Pages 222-241
    3. Ielka van der Sluis, Chris Mellish
      Pages 242-263
  6. Shared Task Challenges for NLG

    1. Anja Belz, Eric Kow, Jette Viethen, Albert Gatt
      Pages 294-327
    2. Alexander Koller, Kristina Striegnitz, Donna Byron, Justine Cassell, Robert Dale, Johanna Moore et al.
      Pages 328-352
  7. Back Matter

About this book


Natural language generation (NLG) is a subfield of natural language processing (NLP) that is often characterized as the study of automatically converting non-linguistic representations (e.g., from databases or other knowledge sources) into coherent natural language text. In recent years the field has evolved substantially. Perhaps the most important new development is the current emphasis on data-oriented methods and empirical evaluation. Progress in related areas such as machine translation, dialogue system design and automatic text summarization and the resulting awareness of the importance of language generation, the increasing availability of suitable corpora in recent years, and the organization of shared tasks for NLG, where different teams of researchers develop and evaluate their algorithms on a shared, held out data set have had a considerable impact on the field, and this book offers the first comprehensive overview of recent empirically oriented NLG research.


automatic translation human-human communication information extraction information retrieval knowledge learning modeling natural language speech recognition text summarization

Editors and affiliations

  • Emiel Krahmer
    • 1
  • Mariët Theune
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Humanities, Department of Communication and Information Sciences (DCI)Tilburg UniversityTilburgThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Human Media Interaction (HMI), Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computer Science (EEMCS)University of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands

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