© 2009

Modeling and Control for Efficient Bipedal Walking Robots

A Port-Based Approach


  • Presents a complete framework for modeling, analysis, and control of walking robots and complex mechanical systems in general

  • Provides tools and methods to analyze and improve the design of passive or almost- passive walking robots

  • Gives an introduction to the use of port-Hamiltonian concepts in mechanics and robotics

  • Extends classical dynamics equations for multibody systems to handle more general joints


Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 53)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
  2. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 1-13
  3. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 15-53
  4. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 55-92
  5. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 93-127
  6. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 129-166
  7. Vincent Duindam, Stefano Stramigioli
    Pages 167-174
  8. Back Matter

About this book


Walking robots are complex machines with many degrees of freedom. Designing efficient controllers for such robots can be a daunting task, and the differential equations by themselves usually do not help much when trying to understand the dynamics. Still, research on passive dynamic walking robots has shown that it is possible to make robotic mechanisms walk very naturally and efficiently without using any control! The gap between theoretically well-understood position-controlled walking robots and experimentally-designed uncontrolled passive-dynamic walkers is nevertheless large, and extending a passive-dynamic walker to be more robust and versatile is non-trivial.

The purpose of this work is to present a set of mathematical tools that can simplify studying robotic walking motions and designing energy-efficient controllers. The authors extend classical dynamic modeling methods and view robots and controllers as energy-exchanging physical systems, which forms the basisof the so-called port-based approach. They show how such methods can be used to analyze walking mechanisms, find efficient walking trajectories, and design controllers that increase robustness and stability with minimal energy cost. Extensive examples and illustrations are used with the objective to make the mathematics intuitive and accessible to everyone with an engineering background.


3D Mechanics Bipedal Walking Contact Models Modelbased Control Multibody Dynamics Passivity-based Control Physical Simulation Port-Hamiltonian Systems control mathematics modeling robot simulation stability

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University of California at BerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.University of TwenteEnschedeNetherlands

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Modeling and Control for Efficient Bipedal Walking Robots
  • Book Subtitle A Port-Based Approach
  • Authors Vincent Duindam
    Stefano Stramigioli
  • Series Title Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2009
  • Publisher Name Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
  • eBook Packages Engineering Engineering (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-540-89917-4
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-642-10061-1
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-540-89918-1
  • Series ISSN 1610-7438
  • Series E-ISSN 1610-742X
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XIV, 214
  • Number of Illustrations 81 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Control, Robotics, Mechatronics
    Artificial Intelligence
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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From the reviews:

“This book is written for researchers, graduate students, and professionals interested in robotics.” (IEEE Control Systems and Magazine, Vol. 30, June, 2010)