© 2018

Teachers as Tutors: Shadow Education Market Dynamics in Georgia


Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 34)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiv
  2. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 3-17
  3. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 18-64
  4. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 65-79
  5. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 80-112
  6. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 113-143
  7. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 144-163
  8. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 164-202
  9. Magda Nutsa Kobakhidze
    Pages 203-230
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 231-260

About this book


The so-called shadow education system of private supplementary tutoring has become a global phenomenon but has different features in different settings. This book explores the ways in which teacher-tutors’ beliefs, social norms, ideals about professionalism, and community values shape their economic decisions in the informal shadow education marketplace. Through theoretical lenses of economic sociology and anthropology, this study uncovers strong social and moral embeddedness of the shadow education market in social relationships, cultural norms and moralities in post-Soviet Georgia. The book questions some of the basic assumptions that the predominant neoliberal discourse promotes worldwide.

The book is based on Kobakhidze’s PhD dissertation, which won the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Gail P. Kelly Outstanding Dissertation Award.

“[A] theoretically innovative and substantively enlightening account of shadow schooling in Georgia… A landmark achievement.”
Roger Dale, University of Bristol

“… an important and timely topic … addressed with exceptional thoroughness. It constitutes a solid piece of academic work and clearly makes a significant contribution to the field of shadow education.”Heidi Biseth, University College of Southeast Norway, Chair of Gail P. Kelly Award Committee in 2017

“…through robust critical analysis, Kobakhidze invites a humanistic re-visioning of economy and society.“
Ora Kwo, The University of Hong Kong


Private Supplementary Tutoring Shadow Education Economic Sociology Post-Soviet countries education in Georgia teacher-tutors neoliberal discourse Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Comparative Education Research Centre

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Bibliographic information


“The author’s contribution to educational research is not only to inform policymakers and researchers concerned with teaching practices, but also to inform those concerned with student learning. … This book could become a classic in the field of educational research.” (Larry E. Suter, International Review of Education, Vol. 65, 2019)