© 2018

Rethinking the Three R's in Animal Research

Replacement, Reduction, Refinement


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Jan Lauwereyns
    Pages 1-8
  3. Jan Lauwereyns
    Pages 9-40
  4. Jan Lauwereyns
    Pages 71-101
  5. Jan Lauwereyns
    Pages 103-129
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 131-134

About this book


This work challenges the current reliance on "The Three R's" or Replacement, Reduction and Refinement which direct most animal research in the behavioral sciences. The author argues that these principles that were developed in the 1950's to guide the use of animals in research studies are outdated. He suggests that the notions of refinement and reduction are often ill-defined and can be useful only in cases where replacement is impossible. 


Neuroscience Animal Cognition Animal Models Animal Ethics Behavioral Science Bioethics Biomedical Ethics The Three R's Animal Welfare Micromotives Macrobehavior Primate Studies

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Kyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

About the authors

Jan Lauwereyns is Professor of Psychology in the Faculty of Arts and Science at Kyushu University, Japan.

Bibliographic information