© 2019

Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin

Current Perspectives and New Directions

  • Peter L. Patrick
  • Monika S. Schmid
  • Karin Zwaan
  • State-of-the-art developments in the new and growing field of LADO by the leading experts

  • In-depth focus on asylum processes across Europe, and groundbreaking legal decisions illuminated by lawyers and experts

  • An overview of current controversies among forensic linguists

  • Discusses the changing role of language expertise in asylum tribunals and government bureaux


Part of the Language Policy book series (LAPO, volume 16)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. The Data for LADO

  3. LADO Analysis

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 61-61
    2. Paul Foulkes, Peter French, Kim Wilson
      Pages 91-116
  4. Complicating Factors and Case Studies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 117-117
    2. Monika S. Schmid
      Pages 155-165
    3. Derek Nurse
      Pages 167-192
  5. Use and Evaluation of LADO Reports by the State

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 211-211
    2. Esther M. van Ruth, Michel M. A. Smithuis
      Pages 243-252
    3. Tim McNamara, Doris Schüpbach
      Pages 253-271

About this book


This comprehensive, up-to-date volume reports on current practices and use of Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin (LADO). Readers will find chapters on how it is done, where it is used, how it is used, and learn about recent developments on the use of LADO reports in judicial practice, and current controversies in the field. LADO is a highly controversial topic, and a relatively new branch of forensic linguistics that is used by most European and some non-European governments. When asylum seekers cannot submit documentary proof of their origin, their language can be analysed in order to assess whether their linguistic profile is in accordance with their stated origin. Around 10,000 such language analyses take place annually. This volume is based on the series of meetings of the Language and Asylum Research Group held between 2010 and 2012 and convened by the editors, and offers a state-of-the art perspective from researchers, practitioners, policymakers and stakeholders working on or with LADO.


Bajunis and determination of origin LADO procedure asylum policies in Europe forensic linguistics forensic phonetics legal aspects of forensic linguistics linguistic analysis of asylum seekers linguistic expertise in asylum procedures multilingualism and language of origin transnational languages

Editors and affiliations

  • Peter L. Patrick
    • 1
  • Monika S. Schmid
    • 2
  • Karin Zwaan
    • 3
  1. 1.University of EssexWivenhoe, ColchesterUK
  2. 2.University of EssexWivenhoe, ColchesterUK
  3. 3.Radboud UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Language Analysis for the Determination of Origin
  • Book Subtitle Current Perspectives and New Directions
  • Editors Peter L. Patrick
    Monika S. Schmid
    Karin Zwaan
  • Series Title Language Policy
  • Series Abbreviated Title Language Policy
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Social Sciences Social Sciences (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-79001-5
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-030-07701-3
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-79003-9
  • Series ISSN 1571-5361
  • Series E-ISSN 2452-1027
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XII, 271
  • Number of Illustrations 31 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Applied Linguistics
    Educational Policy and Politics
    Public Policy
  • Buy this book on publisher's site


“This is an important and much-needed book. Linguistic Analysis for Determination of Origin (LADO) is a highly-contested procedure, whether it is used positively to grant asylum or negatively to return asylum seekers to their (supposed) country of origin. In a succession of informative, eminently readable and tellingly illustrated chapters, the authors provide an impressively up-to-date overview of the field. Many chapters refer to the need to update the 2004 Guidelines for the Use of Language Analysis in relation to Questions of National Origin in Refugee Cases. This book would be an obvious starting point for any group charged with this task.” (Professor David Little, Fellow Emeritus, Trinity College Dublin)