Europe and Iran’s Nuclear Crisis

Lead Groups and EU Foreign Policy-Making

  • Riccardo Alcaro

Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xi
  2. Riccardo Alcaro
    Pages 1-20
  3. Theory and History

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 21-21
  4. Part II

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 91-91
    2. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 93-115
    3. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 117-140
  5. Part III

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 141-142
    2. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 157-180
    3. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 181-202
    4. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 203-223
    5. Riccardo Alcaro
      Pages 225-242
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 243-293

About this book


This book investigates the European involvement in managing the nuclear dispute with Iran, shedding new light on EU foreign policy-making. The author focuses on the peculiar format through which the EU managed Iran’s nuclear issue: a ‘lead group’ consisting of France, Germany and the UK and the High Representative for EU foreign policy (E3/EU). The experience of the E3/EU lends credibility to the claim that lead groups give EU foreign policy direction and substance. The E3/EU set up a negotiating framework that worked as a de-escalating tool, a catalyst for Security Council unity and a forum for crisis management. They inflicted pain on Iran by adopting a comprehensive sanctions regime, but did so only having secured US commitment to a diplomatic solution. Once the deal was reached, they defended it vigorously. The E3/EU may have been supporting actors, but their achievements were real. 


Iran's nuclear crisis EU and nuclear weapons EU foreign policy France and Iran nuclear talks Germany and Iran nuclear talks UK and Iranian nuclear talks EU/E3 EU Security council International Security studies sanctions regime on Iran Iranian nuclear weapons international diplomacy 2003-16 Iranian nuclear crisis theoretical framework for EU foreign policy EU-Iranian nuclear deal US and Iran nuclear crisis EU/E3 Iran agreements EU/E3 Iran talks Europeanisation of foreign policy Iran's nuclear programme

Authors and affiliations

  • Riccardo Alcaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Affari InternazionaliRomeItaly

Bibliographic information

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