Threats to Mangrove Forests

Hazards, Vulnerability, and Management

  • Christopher Makowski
  • Charles W. Finkl

Part of the Coastal Research Library book series (COASTALRL, volume 25)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Natural Mangrove Systems

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. I. D. Cresswell, V. Semeniuk
      Pages 3-22
    3. Erik M. Horstman, Carolyn J. Lundquist, Karin R. Bryan, Richard H. Bulmer, Julia C. Mullarney, Debra J. Stokes
      Pages 23-51
    4. Alireza Salehipour Milani
      Pages 53-75
    5. Marlenne Manzano-Sarabia, Olivia Millán-Aguilar, Francisco Flores-Cárdenas, Lidia Rodríguez-Arredondo, Mayra I. Grano-Maldonado, Mario Nieves-Soto
      Pages 77-87
  3. Threats, Vulnerability, and Impacts

  4. Pollution and Contamination by Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals

  5. Assessment Techniques, Ecosystem Design, and Management Strategies

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 365-365
    2. Shafi Noor Islam, Nurin Hidayati Hj Abd Rahman, Sandra Reinstädtler, Mohd Nur Azri Bin Aladin
      Pages 401-417
    3. Erik A. Toorman, Edward Anthony, Pieter G. E. F. Augustinus, Antoine Gardel, Nicolas Gratiot, Oudho Homenauth et al.
      Pages 429-473
    4. Stuart E. Hamilton, Gustavo A. Castellanos-Galindo, Marco Millones-Mayer, Mara Chen
      Pages 497-520
  6. Conservation, Rehabilitation, and Governance

  7. Christopher Makowski, Charles W. Finkl
    Pages E1-E1
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 717-724

About this book


This book focuses on the worldwide threats to mangrove forests and the management solutions currently being used to counteract those hazards. Designed for the professional or specialist in marine science, coastal zone management, biology, and related disciplines, this work will appeal to those not only working to protect mangrove forests, but also the surrounding coastal areas of all types. Examples are drawn from many different geographic areas, including North and South America, India, and Southeast Asia. Subject areas covered include both human-induced and natural impacts to mangroves, intended or otherwise, as well as the efforts being made by coastal researchers to promote restoration of these coastal fringing forests. 


Conservation ecology and mangroves Coastal management and mangroves Marine science and mangroves Coastal ecosystems and mangroves Biodiversity and mangroves

Editors and affiliations

  • Christopher Makowski
    • 1
  • Charles W. Finkl
    • 2
  1. 1.Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF)Coconut CreekUSA
  2. 2.Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF)AshevilleUSA

Bibliographic information