© 2018

Updates on Clostridium difficile in Europe

Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health Volume 8

  • Paola Mastrantonio
  • Maja Rupnik


  • Highlights the most important aspects of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of C. difficile infections (CDI)

  • Gives guidance on C. difficile diagnostics

  • Reviews antibiotic treatments and alternative treatments, e.g., probiotics and fecal transplantation

  • Discusses new aspects such as comparative genomics and One Health aspect of C. difficile reservoir

  • Includes a summary of the achievements of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Study Group for Clostridium difficile (ESGCD)


Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1050)

Also part of the Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health book sub series (AMIDPH, volume 1050)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Elena Reigadas Ramírez, Emilio Santiago Bouza
    Pages 1-12
  3. Camilla Wiuff, A-Lan Banks, Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Laura Cottom
    Pages 13-25
  4. Monique J. T. Crobach, Amoe Baktash, Nikolas Duszenko, Ed J. Kuijper
    Pages 27-44
  5. Jeanne Couturier, Kerrie Davies, Cécile Gateau, Frédéric Barbut
    Pages 45-58
  6. Sandra Janezic, Julian R. Garneau, Marc Monot
    Pages 59-75
  7. Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Holger Barth, Nigel Minton, Klaus Aktories
    Pages 77-96
  8. Claudia Vuotto, Gianfranco Donelli, Anthony Buckley, Caroline Chilton
    Pages 97-115
  9. Fidelma Fitzpatrick, Mairead Skally, Melissa Brady, Karen Burns, Christopher Rooney, Mark H. Wilcox
    Pages 117-135
  10. Patrizia Spigaglia, Paola Mastrantonio, Fabrizio Barbanti
    Pages 137-159
  11. Lorena Valdés-Varela, Miguel Gueimonde, Patricia Ruas-Madiedo
    Pages 161-176
  12. Marcello Maida, James Mcilroy, Gianluca Ianiro, Giovanni Cammarota
    Pages 177-195
  13. Jean-François Bruxelle, Séverine Péchiné, Anne Collignon
    Pages 197-225
  14. Cristina Rodriguez Diaz, Christian Seyboldt, Maja Rupnik
    Pages 227-243
  15. Paola Mastrantonio, Maja Rupnik
    Pages E1-E1
  16. Back Matter
    Pages 255-261

About this book


This book outlines the currently available clinical, epidemiological and experimental data on Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with special emphasis on studies and results achieved in Europe. 

The incidence and severity of CDI has increased significantly over the last decade, and the book explains why C. difficile, recently reclassified as Clostridioides difficile, remains a significant challenge, also from economic perspective, to health care systems all over the world. The different reservoirs of this ubiquitous microorganism are reviewed as well as the different factors contributing to its virulence, such as toxins and biofilm formation. The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance is clearly a concern and in a specific way can influence the CDI epidemiology. Additionally, new emerging strains and comparative genomics studies are discussed for their relevance from epidemiological and evolutionary point of view. 

The book also gives an overview on diagnostics, therapy and surveillance, all of which are still challenging. Therefore, a closer look is taken on the effect of probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics, for prevention and treatment of CDI. Fecal transplantation from healthy donors, passive immunotherapies and vaccines for patients with recurrences are also discussed in dedicated chapters. 

The book closes with a summary of the history and the achievements of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Study Group for Clostridium difficile (ESGCD) written by the current and past presidents of the Society. It is the aim of this book to raise awareness on CDI and to disseminate updated information on its prevention, diagnosis and treatment.


Clostridium difficile Clostridioides difficile nosocomial diarrhea microorganism pathogens infectious disease anaerobes Clostridium difficile infection CDI

Editors and affiliations

  • Paola Mastrantonio
    • 1
  • Maja Rupnik
    • 2
  1. 1.Former Research Director in the Department of Infectious DiseasesNational Institute of Health (ISS)RomeItaly
  2. 2.Department for Microbiological ResearchNational Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food (NLZOH)MariborSlovenia

About the editors

Dr.P.Mastrantonio has served till 2015 as research director in the Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases of the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS). She completed her studies in Biological Sciences at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Italy. She has been worked in the field of clinical bacteriology at ISS where she was appointed Director of the Laboratory of Gastroenteric and Neurologic Bacterial Diseases. In particular, she has been involved in international study groups on Clostridium difficile contributing to European surveillance studies to monitor the epidemiology of C.difficile infection. She was Executive Committee member of the ESCMID Study Group on C. difficile (ESGCD) and was appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health as National Microbiological Focal Point at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in Stockholm.


Dr. M. Rupnik is professor of Microbiology at Medical faculty, University of Maribor, and Head of Department for Microbiological Research at National laboratory for health, environment and food (NLZOH) in Maribor, Slovenia. She completed University studies and PhD at Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana. Her research is focused on molecular epidemiology of C. difficile and lately also on gut microbiota and NGS applications in clinical microbiology. She is von Humboldt fellow, has obtained ECCMID award for Advances in Clinical Microbiology and Slovenian national award for exceptional scientific achievements. She was a member of ESGCD Executive board and is serving as President of series of ICDS meetings (International C. difficile Symposium).

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Updates on Clostridium difficile in Europe
  • Book Subtitle Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health Volume 8
  • Editors Paola Mastrantonio
    Maja Rupnik
  • Series Title Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
  • Series Abbreviated Title Adv Exp Med Biol
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2018
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Biomedical and Life Sciences Biomedical and Life Sciences (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-72798-1
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-89210-8
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-72799-8
  • Series ISSN 0065-2598
  • Series E-ISSN 2214-8019
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages VIII, 261
  • Number of Illustrations 9 b/w illustrations, 16 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Medical Microbiology
    Infectious Diseases
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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