Basic Principles of Topography

  • Blagoja┬áMarkoski

Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 1-24
  3. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 25-29
  4. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 31-56
  5. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 57-85
  6. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 87-112
  7. Blagoja Markoski
    Pages 113-150
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 183-219

About this book


This book gives a comprehensive overview of all relevant elements in topography and their practical application. It elaborates on the classical representation of terrain on maps such as cartographic projections, together with their classification, scale, and geographical elements. It is richly illustrated with photographs, maps and figures, in which the theoretical explanations are clarified.

Readers will become acquainted with the physical characteristics of the ground, i.e. tectonic and erosive shapes, the importance and classification of terrain, genetic (fluvial, abrasive, glacial, karst) and topographic types such as higher (mountains, hills, peaks) and lower terrain (valleys, fields). In addition, the book discusses cartometry and coordinate systems, orientation in space (geographic, topographic, tactical) including by means of maps, instruments and the night sky and elaborates new techniques and technologies such as aerial photogrammetric imagery, global navigation satellite systems and LiDAR.

The book also includes methods for the practical execution of concrete measurement operations, such as determining position and movement on land with maps, compass and azimuth which makes it especially useful for practitioners and professionals, e.g., for landscape planning, military exercises, mountaineering, nature walks etc. As such it offers a valuable guide not only for undergraduate students but also for researchers in the fields of geography, geosciences, geodesy, ecology, forestry and related areas looking for an overview on topography. Uniquely, the book also features an extensive glossary of topographical terms.


Morphometric Elements of Terrain Genetic and Topographic Types of Terrain Representation of Terrain on Maps Thematic Cartography Cartographic Projection Methods for Orientation in Geographic Space GPS Elements of Maps and Topographic Signs Geographic Names and Labels Topography textbook

Authors and affiliations

  • Blagoja┬áMarkoski
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematics, Institute of GeographySkopjeMacedonia

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2018
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Earth and Environmental Science
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-72146-0
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-72147-7
  • Series Print ISSN 2194-315X
  • Series Online ISSN 2194-3168
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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