Table of contents

About this book


Microaggressions and Modern Racism: Endurance and Evolution explores the causes, manifestations, and consequences of microaggressions, macroaggressions, and modern racism within society. Using surveys and interview data alongside examples in mainstream media, Levchak provides a comprehensive analysis of modern racism on college campuses, in workplaces, and in various media. In so doing, she expands microaggression theory and explores race-based aggression and race relations through sociological and social justice frameworks. The resources offered here have the potential to inform anti-racism policy, programming, and practice that can impact the lives and well-being of all people.


discrimination African-American United States Accidental racism People of color

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyCentral Connecticut State UniversityNew Britain, CTUSA

About the authors

Charisse C. Levchak is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at Central Connecticut State University, USA. 
Aside from having a doctoral degree in sociology, she also holds a Master of Social Work degree. She researches and teaches in the areas of race, cultural competence, diversity, oppression, liberation, and social justice.

Bibliographic information


“In this empirical-research and racism-theory grounded study of racist micro and macro aggressions Professor Levchak  not only lays bare their causes and horrific personal and social consequences but charts a course for how they can be effectively challenged. Microaggressions and Modern Racism is a must read for anyone who wants to learn how to combine strong racism scholarship with effective anti-racist actions.” (Noel A. Cazenave, Professor of Sociology, University of Connecticut and author of Conceptualizing Racism: Breaking the Chains of Racially Accommodative Language)

“Theories of race and racism have proven to be some of the most capable frameworks for understanding our complex modern society. Charisse Levchak makes an important contribution to this literature by examining the multi-faceted nature of how microaggressions operate. One of Levachak's greatest contributions is the development of solid middle theories that apply to some of the most systematically undertheorized domains of black life in the 21st century: media, culture and durable inequalities. Middle theories provide robust testable mechanisms that further our understanding of the social world. Levchak's book is a great book for graduate and undergraduate courses in stratification, culture, race, and media. Well-written and thoughtfully engaged, Levchak's argument provides critical links between our discourses and ourselves.” (Tressie McMillan Cottom, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Sociology I Virginia Commonwealth University, Faculty Associate l Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society l Harvard University)  

“After Philomena Essed’s groundbreaking book in the early 90s, Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory, the concept of microaggressions and racial microaggressions, coined by Psychiatrist Chester Pierce in 1970, became mostly popularized by educators and psychologists. For lack of better words, sociologists had “left the building.” In this book, Dr. Levchak’s has brought back sociology to the microaggressions table, specifically in understanding racial micro- and macroaggressions as both an individual and societal process that has harmful physical, physiological, and mental health consequences for folks of color in the U.S. This is a timely book and one that is apt to generate new ideas in how we ought to be thinking about racial microaggressions.” (Dr. David G. Embrick, Associate Professor of Sociology and Africana Studies, University of Connecticut)

“In this volume, Levchak expands macroaggression theory by discussing the relationship of aggressor to target, responses to the aggression and the spaces where macro and micro aggressions occur. From this perspective, this is a welcomed addition to the scholarship on micro and macro aggressions.” (Silvia Dominguez, Sociology, Northeastern University)

“This thoughtfully enlightening book is an urgent and timely contribution to our understanding of the subtitles of race at the micro-level while offering a clarion call to create a racially just society. Written in an engaging style this richly textured analysis powerfully deepens our understanding of the complexities of micro-and macroaggressions while providing a practical framework to collectively confront biases in order to ameliorate the pernicious impact of racism in America.” (Anthony P. Browne Ph.D., Chair 
Department of Africana & Puerto Rican/Latino Studies, Hunter College, The City University of New York)

“These are fitful times – racial tensions and racism experienced by people of color are on the rise. In this incisive book, Levchak, explores the effects of racial aggression in the form of microaggressions and macroaggressions. Brimming with brilliant insights, this book goes beyond just identifying the insidious nature of overt and covert forms of contemporary racism. If you doubt that that there are ways to reduce or even eradicate racism – or if you ever wondered how – read this book.” (Bilal Dabir Sekou, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Political Science, University of Hartford, Department of Social Science)