Proportional Representation

Apportionment Methods and Their Applications

  • Friedrich Pukelsheim

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxvii
  2. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 71-93
  3. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 95-105
  4. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 107-125
  5. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 127-147
  6. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 159-183
  7. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 185-205
  8. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 225-245
  9. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 247-257
  10. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 275-295
  11. Friedrich Pukelsheim
    Pages 297-318
  12. Back Matter
    Pages 319-342

About this book


The book offers an in-depth study of the translation of vote counts into seat numbers in proportional representation systems  – an approach guided by practical needs. It also provides plenty of empirical instances illustrating the results. It analyzes in detail the 2014 elections to the European Parliament in the 28 member states, as well as the 2009 and 2013 elections to the German Bundestag. This second edition is a complete revision and expanded version of the first edition published in 2014, and many empirical election results that serve as examples have been updated. Further, a final chapter has been added assembling biographical sketches and authoritative quotes from individuals who pioneered the development of apportionment methodology. The mathematical exposition and the interrelations with political science and constitutional jurisprudence make this an apt resource for interdisciplinary courses and seminars on electoral systems and apportionment methods.


apportionment methodology electoral system design proportional representation systems parliamentary elections double proportionality

Authors and affiliations

  • Friedrich Pukelsheim
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für MathematikUniversität AugsburgAugsburgGermany

Bibliographic information

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