This book illustrates applications of mathematics to various processes (physiological or artificial) involving flowing blood, including hemorheology, microcirculation, coagulation, kidney filtration and dialysis, offering a historical overview of each topic. Mathematical models are used to simulate processes normally occurring in flowing blood and to predict the effects of dysfunctions (e.g. bleeding disorders, renal failure), as well as the effects of therapies with an eye to improving treatments. Most of the models have a completely new approach that makes patient-specific simulations possible. The book is mainly intended for mathematicians interested in medical applications, but it is also useful for clinicians such as hematologists, nephrologists, cardio-surgeons, and bioengineers. Some parts require no specific knowledge of mathematics. The book is a valuable addition to mathematics, medical, biology, and bioengineering libraries.