This volume sets out the scientific basis for the current understanding of climate change. It synthesizes and collates an extensive scientific knowledge to show why climate is changing, and the consequences of those changes. Starting with global carbon cycling over geological history of the Earth, the behavior of the carbon cycle is traced back millions of years prior to human influence and shows that the current atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide is unprecedented, which cannot be found in geological records of at least the past two million years. This book sets the foundation for understanding the contemporary carbon cycling, and shows that the contemporary carbon cycling cannot be isolated from geologic history of carbon cycle. This volume also describes the role of carbon sequestration – both natural ecological, engineered and geoengineered options – for mitigating the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. The role of emerging chemical sequestration and climate engineering as future alternatives to avoid dangerous temperature increase are explored. Although the targeted audience is the educators, students, researchers and scientific community, the simplified analysis and synthesis of current and up to date scientific literature makes the volume easier to understand and a tool policy makers can use to make an informed policy decisions.