© 2017

Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing

  • Chantra Eskes
  • Erwin van Vliet
  • Howard I. Maibach


  • Provides in-depth information on the alternatives to animal testing

  • Identifies the most suitable test method(s) for specific uses and endpoints

  • Describes the regulatory acceptance, protocols, performance, limitations, and applicability of each method

  • Explains the role of individual methods within testing strategies


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Skin Irritation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 25-39
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 41-57
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, Carine Tornier, José Cotovio
      Pages 59-72
    5. Hajime Kojima, Masakazu Katoh
      Pages 73-80
    6. Oliver Engelking, Horst W. Fuchs, Dirk Weisensee
      Pages 81-86
  3. Skin Corrosion

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 87-87
    2. Nathalie Alépée, Marie Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 107-125
    3. Helena Kandarova, Manfred Liebsch
      Pages 127-142
    4. Nathalie Alépée, Marie-Hélène Grandidier, José Cotovio
      Pages 143-157
    5. Oliver Engelking, Dirk Weisensee, Horst W. Fuchs
      Pages 159-166
  4. Skin Sensitization

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 197-197
    2. David A. Basketter, Ian Kimber, G. Frank Gerberick
      Pages 215-223
    3. G. Frank Gerberick, John A. Troutman, Leslie M. Foertsch, Petra S. Kern
      Pages 225-233

About this book


This book provides comprehensive information on the alternative (non-animal) dermal toxicity test methods currently available for industrial, regulatory, and academic use and also explores potential future developments. It encompasses all areas of dermal toxicity, including skin irritation, skin corrosion, skin sensitization, UV-induced effects, and skin genotoxicity. An individual chapter is devoted to each test method, with coverage of the scientific basis, validation status and regulatory acceptance, applications and limitations, available protocols, and potential role within testing strategies. In addition, perspectives from the test developer are presented, for example regarding critical steps in the protocol, possible adaptations, and challenges and opportunities. The closing section addresses exploratory areas that may be of relevance for the future of dermal toxicity safety testing, including the validation and regulatory acceptance of integrated testing strategies, the use of alternative methods for infections and inflammatory diseases, novel complex skin models, and high-throughput screening techniques.

Dermal toxicity is an area in which alternatives to the use of animal testing have already gained scientific, industrial, and regulatory acceptance. Practitioners and researchers alike will find Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing to be an ideal source of reliable, up-to-date information on all aspects of the available test methods and likely future directions.


Alternatives to animal testing Cosmetics In vitro toxicology Regulatory testing Safety testing

Editors and affiliations

  • Chantra Eskes
    • 1
  • Erwin van Vliet
    • 2
  • Howard I. Maibach
    • 3
  1. 1.SeCAMMagliasoSwitzerland
  2. 2.Innovitox Consulting & ServicesHoutenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyUniversity of California School of MedicineSan FranciscoUSA

About the editors

Chantra Eskes, PhD, Eng, has around 20 years of experience in the development, optimization, and validation of alternative methods to animal testing. Her activities have contributed to the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of several test methods and to the development of a number of official international test guidelines. Dr. Eskes acts as a Nominated Expert and co-chair for the OECD in the areas of eye irritation/corrosion, skin irritation, skin corrosion, and skin sensitization. She is also President of the European Society of In Vitro Toxicology (ESTIV) and Executive Secretary of the Animal Cell Technology Industrial Platform (ACTIP). She is manager and consultant at SeCAM, a limited company that offers independent consultation and services on alternative methods for scientific, regulatory, and industrial tailored requirements. She is the editor, author, or co-author of more than 35 published scientific articles and book chapters and acts as a reviewer for sever

al journals in the field of in vitro toxicology.

Howard I. Maibach, MD, is Professor of Dermatology in the School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco. He is a leading authority in the fields of dermatotoxicology and dermatopharmacology, in which, over several decades, he has conducted much original research relating to skin diseases and the development of skin-related products. He has written very extensively, with a total of more than 2,000 publications as lead or co-author and over 80 textbooks. Professor Maibach has served on the editorial boards of more than 30 scientific journals and is a member of many professional societies, including the American Academy of Dermatology and the International Commission on Occupational Health. He is a consultant to government agencies, universities, and industry. He has been the recipient of numerous honors, both in the United States and overseas.

Erwin van Vliet, PhD, has more than 10 years of research experience during which he has acquired a strong scientific background in the field of in vitro toxicology. He has been involved in the writing and management of European research projects and formal validation studies. Dr. van Vliet worked for several years at EURL ECVAM in Italy and then gained professional experience at the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) in Baltimore, USA, where he was responsible for setting up a new research laboratory and published a review article on toxicity testing for the 21st Century, awarded best main article by ALTEX. In 2010, he joined the Fetal Medicine Research Group in Barcelona,

Spain, and since 2013 he has worked as an independent consultant in the field of in vitro toxicology and alternative methods. He acts as the Scientific Coordinator of the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force, which is developing a testing strategy for skin sensitization and supports various scientific projects of SeCAM.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Alternatives for Dermal Toxicity Testing
  • Editors Chantra Eskes
    Erwin van Vliet
    Howard I. Maibach
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2017
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-50351-6
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-84378-0
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-50353-0
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XX, 592
  • Number of Illustrations 31 b/w illustrations, 61 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Dermatology
    Animal Models
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors
Health & Hospitals
Internal Medicine & Dermatology
Consumer Packaged Goods