© 2017

Physiologic Anchorage Control

A New Orthodontic Concept and its Clinical Application

  • Tian Min Xu

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Fundamental Theory of Physiologic Anchorage Control

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Tian Min Xu
      Pages 61-69
    3. Ruoping Jiang, Fei Teng, Feiyu Du, Huizhong Chen, Tian Min Xu
      Pages 103-120
    4. Tian Min Xu
      Pages 121-136
  3. Clinical Application of PASS Technique

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 137-137
    2. Tian Min Xu, Bing Han, Gui Chen, Fanfan Dai, Mengjiao Ruan
      Pages 139-146
    3. Hong Su, Si Chen, Gui Chen
      Pages 147-165
    4. Xiaoyun Zhang, Tian Min Xu, Gui Chen
      Pages 167-190
    5. Si Chen, Guangying Song
      Pages 191-205
    6. Gui Chen, Jingjing Zeng, Fanfan Dai, Guangying Song, Kaifan Xu, Tian Min Xu
      Pages 207-229
    7. Guangying Song, Tian Min Xu, Si Chen, Fanfan Dai
      Pages 231-257
  4. Back Matter
    Pages 259-264

About this book


This book provides a comprehensive introduction to physiologic anchorage control, explains the implications for clinical practice, and presents an anchorage technique applicable for the treatment of different malocclusions. The concept of physiologic anchorage control is derived from observations of upper molar movement during growth in adolescence, including in the absence of orthodontic treatment, which indicate that molar forward displacement comprises two components: the first due to biologic force or physiologic anchorage loss and the second due to orthodontic force or mechanical anchorage loss. All previous anchorage methods have been based on the assumption that molar anchorage loss is to be attributed solely to the mechanical force used to retract anterior teeth, and the new concept represents a paradigm shift of clinical significance. This book explores the pattern of upper molar growth in depth, highlights the physiologic significance of the curve of Spee, and analyzes the biomechanics of physiologic anchorage control. An anchorage control system that fully takes into account the latest conceptual insights is described and its clinical use and utility, examined.


Craniofacial growth Light Force Low Friction Appliance physiologic anchorage loss Orthodontic anchorage design Orthodontic biomechanics Spee-archwire System Upper molar movement

Editors and affiliations

  • Tian Min Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OrthodonticsPeking University School and Hospital of StomatologyBeijingChina

About the editors

Tian-Min Xu has been a Professor in the Department of Orthodontics at the School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China since 2003. Dr. Xu obtained his DDS from Nanjing Medical College, Faculty of Dentistry in 1986 before obtaining an MS and PhD from Peking University, School of Stomatology and completing a postdoc at the University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. He is a Standing Committee Member and past President of the Chinese Orthodontic Society and a Trustee of Council for the Chinese Stomatological Association. He has also served as a member of the WFO Council and an Executive Committee Member of the Asian-Pacific Orthodontic Society. Dr. Xu is an editorial board member for several journals, including Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research, European Journal of Orthodontics and is a member of the review board for the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics. He is the author of more than 40 papers in international peer-reviewed journals as well as more than 100 papers in Chinese journals. He has co-edited three books, including Chinese Contemporary Orthodontics , 4th ed. (Peking University Medical Press, 2014).

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Physiologic Anchorage Control
  • Book Subtitle A New Orthodontic Concept and its Clinical Application
  • Editors Tian Min Xu
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing AG 2017
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-48331-3
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-83915-8
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-48333-7
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XII, 264
  • Number of Illustrations 41 b/w illustrations, 225 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Dentistry
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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