Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Carolyn Kieran, JeongSuk Pang, Deborah Schifter, Swee Fong Ng
    Pages 1-1 Open Access
  3. Carolyn Kieran, JeongSuk Pang, Deborah Schifter, Swee Fong Ng
    Pages 3-32 Open Access
  4. Carolyn Kieran, JeongSuk Pang, Deborah Schifter, Swee Fong Ng
    Pages 33-33 Open Access
  5. Back Matter
    Pages 35-42

About this book


This survey of the state of the art on research in early algebra traces the evolution of a relatively new field of research and teaching practice. With its focus on the younger student, aged from about 6 years up to 12 years, this volume reveals the nature of the research that has been carried out in early algebra and how it has shaped the growth of the field. The survey, in presenting examples drawn from the steadily growing research base, highlights both the nature of algebraic thinking and the ways in which this thinking is being developed in the primary and early middle school student. Mathematical relations, patterns, and arithmetical structures lie at the heart of early algebraic activity, with processes such as noticing, conjecturing, generalizing, representing, justifying, and communicating being central to students’ engagement.


Early Algebraic Thinking History of Early Algebra Research Evolution of Early Algebra Research Generalized Arithmetic Functional Thinking Neurocognitive Studies Instructional Implications Learning Early Algebra Teaching Early Algebra

Authors and affiliations

  • Carolyn Kieran
    • 1
  • JeongSuk Pang
    • 2
  • Deborah Schifter
    • 3
  • Swee Fong Ng
    • 4
  1. 1.Departement de MathematiquesProfessor Emerita, Universite du Quebec a MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Elementary EducationKorea National University of Education, Department of Elementary EducationChungbukKorea (Republic of)
  3. 3.Education Development CenterWalthamUSA
  4. 4.Mathematics and Mathematics Education Nanyang Technological University, National Institute of EducationSingaporeSingapore

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2016
  • License CC BY-NC
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-32257-5
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-32258-2
  • Series Print ISSN 2366-5947
  • Series Online ISSN 2366-5955
  • Buy this book on publisher's site