Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xviii
  2. The Concept of Anti-fragility

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 3-12 Open Access
    3. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 13-23 Open Access
    4. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 25-34 Open Access
    5. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 35-43 Open Access
  3. Anti-fragility to Downtime

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 45-45
    2. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 47-56 Open Access
    3. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 57-65 Open Access
    4. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 67-78 Open Access
  4. Anti-fragility to Malware

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 79-79
    2. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 81-92 Open Access
    3. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 93-98 Open Access
    4. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 99-110 Open Access
  5. Anomaly Detection

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 111-111
    2. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 113-124 Open Access
    3. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 125-132 Open Access
  6. Future Anti-fragile Systems

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 133-133
    2. Kjell Jørgen Hole
      Pages 135-140 Open Access
  7. Back Matter
    Pages 141-151

About this book


This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments.

The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.


Anomaly detection Anti-fragility Cloud computing Complex adaptive systems DevOps (Development and Operation) Diversity Loose coupling Malware Malware detection Microservices Modules Monitoring Redundancy Risk analysis Software architecture Software design System dependencies Tight coupling Trust Weak links

Authors and affiliations

  • Kjell Jørgen Hole
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016
  • License CC BY-NC
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Computer Science
  • Print ISBN 978-3-319-30068-9
  • Online ISBN 978-3-319-30070-2
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors
IT & Software