© 2016

Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring

Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures

  • Mark Bray
  • Ora Kwo
  • Boris Jokić
  • First collection of

  • chapters on the theme of private supplementary tutoring

  • Focuses on methodology,

  • academic subjects, and primary and secondary education

  • Presents lessons from diverse educational, national, and research cultures

  • Addresses a growing and significant phenomenon, in a wide range of countries


Part of the CERC Studies in Comparative Education book series (CERC, volume 32)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xxix
  2. Employing Quantitative Instruments

  3. Discerning Qualities

  4. Expanding Perspectives with Mixed Approaches

  5. Learning and Comparing

  6. Back Matter
    Pages 289-297

About this book


Private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education because of the way that it mimics mainstream schooling, has greatly expanded worldwide. It consumes considerable family resources, provides employment for tutors, occupies the time of students, and has a backwash on regular schools. Although such tutoring has become a major industry and a daily activity for students, tutors and families, the research literature has been slow to catch up with the phenomenon. The topic is in some respects difficult to research, precisely because it is shadowy. Contours are indistinct, and the actors may hesitate to share their experiences and perspectives. Presenting methodological lessons from diverse cultures, the book contains chapters from both high-income and low-income settings in Asia, Caribbean, Europe and the Middle East. Separately and together, the chapters present valuable insights into the design and conduct of research. The book will assist both consumers and producers of research. Consumers will become better judges of the strengths, weaknesses and orientations of literature on the theme; and producers will gain insights for design of instruments, collection of data, and interpretation of findings.

The editors: Mark Bray is UNESCO Chair Professor in Comparative Education at the University of Hong Kong. Ora Kwo is an Associate Professor in the Comparative Education Research Centre at the University of Hong Kong. Boris Jokić is a Scientific Associate in the Centre for Educational Research and Development at the Institute for Social Research in Zagreb, Croatia.


privatization tutoring shadow education research methods comparative education

Editors and affiliations

  • Mark Bray
    • 1
  • Ora Kwo
    • 2
  • Boris Jokić
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  3. 3.Centre for Educational Research and DeveInstitute for Social Research in ZagrebZagrebCroatia

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Researching Private Supplementary Tutoring
  • Book Subtitle Methodological Lessons from Diverse Cultures
  • Editors Mark Bray
    Ora Kwo
    Boris Jokić
  • Series Title CERC Studies in Comparative Education
  • Series Abbreviated Title CERC Stud.Comp.Educat.
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-30041-2
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-80712-6
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-30042-9
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XXIX, 278
  • Number of Illustrations 13 b/w illustrations, 0 illustrations in colour
  • Topics International and Comparative Education
    Learning & Instruction
    Sociology of Education
  • Buy this book on publisher's site