This book includes studies that represent the state of the art in science education research and convey a sense of the variation in educational traditions around the world. The papers are organized into six main sections: science teaching processes, conceptual understanding, reasoning strategies, early years science education, and affective and social aspects of science teaching and learning. The volume features 18 papers, selected from the most outstanding papers presented during the 10th European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference, held in Nicosia, Cyprus, in September 2013. The theme of the conference was “Science Education Research for Evidence-based Teaching and Coherence in Learning”. The studies presented underline aspects of great relevance in contemporary science education: the need to reflect on different approaches to enhance our knowledge of learning processes and the role of context, designed or circumstantial, formal or non-formal, in learning and instruction. These studies are innovative in the issues they explore, the methods they use, or the ways in which emergent knowledge in the field is represented. The book is of interest to science educators and science education researchers with a commitment to evidence informed teaching and learning.