© 2015

A Toxicologist's Guide to Clinical Pathology in Animals

Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, Urinalysis


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. John E. Whalan
    Pages 1-11
  3. John E. Whalan
    Pages 13-25
  4. John E. Whalan
    Pages 27-33
  5. John E. Whalan
    Pages 35-42
  6. John E. Whalan
    Pages 43-66
  7. John E. Whalan
    Pages 67-94
  8. John E. Whalan
    Pages 95-108
  9. John E. Whalan
    Pages 109-143
  10. John E. Whalan
    Pages 145-150
  11. Back Matter
    Pages 151-151

About this book


This guide provides an easy-to-use desk reference for diagnostic information on commonly used hematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis parameters. Additional reference materials are provided as an aid in evaluating clinical pathology data. For many toxicologists, the evaluation of hematology, clinical chemistry, and urinalysis data can be the most challenging aspect of animal toxicity studies. In a typical toxicity study, dozens of parameters are measured several times over the course of the study. There may be hundreds of data points, each of which needs to be considered. A Toxicologist’s Guide to Clinical Pathology in Animals will serve as an essential primer for toxicologists in training and in industry as well as for researchers and professionals in a veterinary practice or a laboratory.


Clinical Chemistry Clinical Pathology Hematology Hematopoiesis Nucleated erythrocytes Urinalysis

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Office of Research and DevelopmentUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyWashington DCUSA

About the authors

John E. Whalan has had a rich and varied 41 year career in toxicology. He began as an inhalation toxicologist at Hazleton Laboratories (now Covance) where he had hands-on experience with animals, inhalation chambers, instrumentation, necropsies, data evaluation and the implementation of Good Laboratory Practice regulations. His next position was with Battelle Columbus Laboratories where he monitored preclinical animal studies of many investigational cancer drugs on behalf of the National Cancer Institute. For the past 30 years, he has served as a senior inhalation toxicologist and risk assessor at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). For 19 of those years, he evaluated animal toxicology data and performed risk assessments for numerous pesticide registrations. He has drafted test guidelines and guidance documents for the US EPA and the OECD and has had an opportunity to work with expert toxicologists and pathologists around the world. He is currently working in the EPA’s National Center for Environmental Assessment in the Office of Research and Development. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Toxicology. 

Bibliographic information

Industry Sectors
Health & Hospitals
Pharmacology & Toxicology
Consumer Packaged Goods


“This is a short and concise guide to clinical pathology written by a toxicologist … . This small book gives a brief description … of species differences for CBC, chemistry panel, urinalysis. … This may be helpful for toxicologists who want a concise handbook.” (Maureen McMichael, Doody's Book Reviews, July, 2015)