© 2015

Recombinant Enzymes - From Basic Science to Commercialization

  • Azura Amid


  • Builds a bridge in the understanding between researchers and manufacturers in the field of recombinant enzymes

  • Provides a thorough overview to assist the reader's understanding of the inter-related topics

  • Some chapters are written in laboratory procedures style

  • Incorporating tools in scaling up for commercialization


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Azura Amid, Norhidayah Hassan
    Pages 11-18
  3. Azura Amid, Mohd Jamil Aizat Jamaluddin, Muhd Ezza Faize Othman
    Pages 19-39
  4. Farah Fadwa Ben Belgasem, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh
    Pages 41-60
  5. Azura Amid, Nurul Azira Ismail, Mohd Jamil Aizat Jamaluddin
    Pages 81-98
  6. Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Sarina Sulaiman, Nor Fadhillah Mohamed Amin, Fathilah Ali
    Pages 99-113
  7. Fadzilah Adibah Abdul Majid
    Pages 115-127
  8. Mohd Jamil Aizat Jamaluddin, Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Sarina Sulaiman, Dzun Noraini Jimat, Muhd. Ezza Faiez Othman, Azura Amid
    Pages 129-142
  9. Azura Amid, Nurul Azira Ismail, Zatul Iffah Mohd Arshad
    Pages 143-157
  10. Azura Amid, Nurul Azira Ismail, Mohd Jamil Aizat Jamaluddin
    Pages 159-174
  11. Azura Amid, Zatul Iffaf Mohd Arshad, Muhd Ezza Faiez Othman
    Pages 175-185
  12. Farah Fadwa Ben Belgasem, Hamzah Mohd. Salleh
    Pages E1-E1
  13. Back Matter
    Pages 187-188

About this book


This edited work presents studies that clarify the basics of producing recombinant enzymes that finally lead to commercialization. It enables researchers to see what is crucial to the commercialization process, from examining the cloning method, using analytical techniques such as calculating the total protein content and enzyme activity, through considering upstream and downstream processes, to the final product. 

Readers will discover the importance of the cloning method as it influences the upstream and downstream processes and determines the level of success of the recombinant enzyme commercialization processes. We see that the two main factors that are particularly sensitive during the cloning process are the vector and the host. 

A discussion of analytical techniques is presented followed by studies on important stages during the upstream processes including the process of optimizing the media to get results and high enzyme activity. Downstream processes such as the cell disruption technique, purification and formulation of the final product are then considered. The reader is introduced to software that helps streamline recombinant enzyme production from the upstream to downstream processes, to facilitate the process of up-scaling production. 

This work includes a case study as tool, to guide understanding of the commercialization process. The work is written for researchers in the field and is especially suited to those who are under pressure to embark on the tough process of commercialization. 


bromelain enzyme fermentation interaction between researcher and manufacturer pre-commercialization recombinant enzyme

Editors and affiliations

  • Azura Amid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology Engineering Kulliyyah of EngineeringInternational Islamic University MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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