© 2015

Individualized Medicine

Ethical, Economical and Historical Perspectives

  • Tobias Fischer
  • Martin Langanke
  • Paul Marschall
  • Susanne Michl


  • A comprehensive and well-grounded outline of Individualized Medicine

  • Presentation and assessment of concrete examples based on multi-year research

  • Intensive discussion of barriers for translation concept of Individualized Medicine into clinical routine


Part of the Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine book series (APPPM, volume 7)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xv
  2. Tobias Fischer, Martin Langanke, Paul Marschall, Susanne Michl
    Pages 1-7
  3. Definition and Concept of Individualized Medicine

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 9-9
    2. Martin Langanke, Wolfgang Lieb, Pia Erdmann, Marcus Dörr, Tobias Fischer, Heyo K. Kroemer et al.
      Pages 11-28
    3. Hans-Jörgen Grabe, Henri Wallaschofski
      Pages 29-42
  4. Perspectives of Socio-Cultural and Historical Studies

  5. Medical Perspectives

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 79-79
    2. Henriette E. Meyer zu Schwabedissen
      Pages 93-112
  6. Concept-Based Ethical Questions

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 113-113
    2. Johann-Christian Põder, Heinrich Assel
      Pages 165-180
  7. Applied Research Ethics

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 181-181
    2. Jakob Fasold, Pia Erdmann, Roberto Lorbeer, Wenke Liedtke, Martin Langanke
      Pages 183-208
    3. Thomas Bahls, Wenke Liedtke, Lars Geidel, Martin Langanke
      Pages 209-229
  8. Health Economic Assessment of Individualized Medicine

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 251-251
    2. Steffen Flessa, Paul Marschall
      Pages 253-271

About this book


In 2009 the University Medicine Greifswald launched the “Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine” (GANI_MED) to implement biomarker-based individualized diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in clinical settings. Individualized Medicine (IM) has led not only to controversies about its potentials, but also about its societal, ethical and health economic implications. This anthology focusses on these areas and includes – next to clinical examples illustrating how the integrated analysis of biomarkers leads to significant improvement of therapeutic outcomes for a subgroup of patients – chapters about the definition, history and epistemology of IM. Additionally there is a focus on conceptual philosophical questions as well as challenges for applied research ethics (informed consent process, the IT-based consent management and the handling of incidental findings). Finally it pays attention to health economic aspects.  The possibilities of IM to initiate a paradigm shift in the German health care provision are investigated. Furthermore, it is asked whether the G-DRG system is ready for the implementation of such approaches into clinical routine.


Biomarkers Health Economics Individualized Medicine Personalised Medicine Research Ethics

Editors and affiliations

  • Tobias Fischer
    • 1
  • Martin Langanke
    • 2
  • Paul Marschall
    • 3
  • Susanne Michl
    • 4
  1. 1.University Medicine Greifswald, Department for Ethics, Theory and History in Life SciencesGreifswaldGermany
  2. 2.University of Greifswald, GANI_MED – Greifswald Approach to Individualized MedicineGreifswaldGermany
  3. 3.University of Greifswald, GANI_MED – Greifswald Approach to Individualized MedicineGreifswaldGermany
  4. 4.University Medicine of Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for History, Theory and Ethic of MedicineMainzGermany

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Individualized Medicine
  • Book Subtitle Ethical, Economical and Historical Perspectives
  • Editors Tobias Fischer
    Martin Langanke
    Paul Marschall
    Susanne Michl
  • Series Title Advances in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine
  • Series Abbreviated Title Advances in Predictive, Preventive
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-319-11718-8
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-34698-4
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-11719-5
  • Series ISSN 2211-3495
  • Series E-ISSN 2211-3509
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XVI, 323
  • Number of Illustrations 6 b/w illustrations, 18 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Biomedicine, general
    Theory of Medicine/Bioethics
    Business and Management, general
    History, general
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“This collection of essays is an interdisciplinary effort to provide a comprehensive overview of individualized medicine. … it is relevant for global researchers and practitioners of individualized medicine. … By carefully gathering a diverse collection of essays, the editors provide us with a much-needed, comprehensive analysis of individualized medicine.” (Kathrine Bendtsen, Doody’s Book Reviews, October, 2015)