© 2015

Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan


  • Demonstrates innovative technique for lipase encapsulation

  • Provides life cycle and techno-economic assessment of encapsulated lipase application in biodiesel production

  • Engages in a critical review of biodiesel production using immobilized lipase


Part of the SpringerBriefs in Bioengineering book series (BRIEFSBIOENG)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-x
  2. Pogaku Ravindra, Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan
    Pages 1-21
  3. Pogaku Ravindra, Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan
    Pages 23-63
  4. Pogaku Ravindra, Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan
    Pages 65-84
  5. Pogaku Ravindra, Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan
    Pages 85-124
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 125-125

About this book


This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For these reasons, immobilized enzymatic process has been developed which retains the advantages of the soluble enzymatic process and reuse of the enzyme is possible which decreases the enzyme cost, the biodiesel produced does not contain any enzyme residue and the activity of the enzyme can be increased by immobilization. The drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme process are mass transfer limitation, enzyme leakage, the lack of a versatile commercial immobilized enzyme and some of immobilization methods involve toxic chemicals. To overcome the drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme, an attempt is made to use a degradable biopolymer (κ-carrageenan) as a carrier for lipase immobilization.


Biopolymer Immobilization biofuels biotechnology renewable energy

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University Malaysia Sabah School of Engineering & Info techKota KinabaluMalaysia
  2. 2.École polytechnique fédérale de LausanneLausanneSwitzerland

About the authors

Prof. Dr. Pogaku Ravindra is an internationally renowned expert in bio energy and Biofuels field. He is a distinguished Professor of Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, and the Postgraduate coordinator of School of Engineering and Information Technology at University Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Kota kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. He is also the UNESCO consultant on Sustainable energy projects. He has rich versatile and varied experience of teaching, research, industry, administrative and executive spanning over 30 years. Prof. Ravindra’s research interests include bioenergy, wealth from waste (Single Cell protein etc), bioprocess engineering. At present his research group focus is on Bio-derived energy for sustainable development. His research work has culminated in over 150 research publications including chapters in books, critical reviews and presentations to his credit. He has published five books. He is the editor-in-chief, editorial board member, guest editor in referred journals and reviewer of many peer journals.

Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan is a researcher at the École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan
  • Authors Pogaku Ravindra
    Kenthorai Raman Jegannathan
  • Series Title SpringerBriefs in Bioengineering
  • Series Abbreviated Title SpringerBriefs in Bioengineering
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information The Author(s) 2015
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Engineering Engineering (R0)
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-319-10821-6
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-319-10822-3
  • Series ISSN 2193-097X
  • Series E-ISSN 2193-0988
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages X, 125
  • Number of Illustrations 52 b/w illustrations, 14 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Biomedicine, general
    Energy Systems
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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