Person-Centered Methods

Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA) and Other Methods for the Analysis of Contingency Tables

  • Mark Stemmler

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 1-11
  3. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 13-18
  4. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 19-23
  5. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 25-50
  6. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 51-56
  7. Mark Stemmler
    Pages 73-83
  8. Mark Stemmler
    Pages E1-E3
  9. Back Matter
    Pages 85-88

About this book


This book takes an easy-to-understand look at the statistical approach called the person-centered method. Instead of analyzing means, variances and covariances of scale scores as in the common variable-centered approach, the person-centered approach analyzes persons or objects grouped according to their characteristic patterns or configurations in contingency tables. The main focus of the book will be on Configural Frequency Analysis (CFA; Lienert and Krauth, 1975) which is a statistical method that looks for over and under-frequented cells or patterns. Over frequented means that the observations in this cell or configuration are observed more often than expected, under-frequented means that this cell or configuration is observed less often than expected. In CFA a pattern or configuration that contains more observed cases than expected is called a type; similarly, a pattern or configuration that is less observed than expected are called an antitype. CFA is similar to log-linear modeling. In log-linear modeling the goal is to come up with a fitting model including all important variables. Instead of fitting a model, CFA looks at the significant residuals of a log-linear model.

The book describes the use of an R-package called confreq (derived from Configural Frequency Analysis). The use of the software package is described and demonstrated with data examples.


Analysis of multivariate cross-classifications Categorical data analysis Contingency tables Data analysis Person-centered methods Statistics for small samples

Authors and affiliations

  • Mark Stemmler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PsychologyFriedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU)ErlangenGermany

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