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Cytokines in Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock

  • Heinz Redl
  • Günther Schlag

Part of the Progress in Inflammation Research book series (PIR)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xx
  2. Induction

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Inducers

      1. F. Ulrich Schade, Regina Flach, Thomas Hirsch, Ralph R. Schumann
        Pages 3-13
    3. Predisposing factors

      1. Frank Stüber
        Pages 79-92
  3. Diagnostic

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 93-93
    2. Jean-Marc Cavaillon
      Pages 95-119
    3. Maarten G. Bouma, Wim A. Buurman
      Pages 121-132
  4. Actions (selected events)

  5. Therapy

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 245-245
    2. Peter Zabel, Soheyl Bahrami
      Pages 261-284
    3. René Zellweger, Alfred Ayala, Ping Wang, Irshad H. Chaudry
      Pages 295-313
    4. The failure of clinical trials in sepsis

  6. Back Matter
    Pages 363-372

About this book

Introduction

t Heinz Red! and Gunther Sch!ag Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Vienna, Austria The word "sepsis" derives from the Greek meaning decay or rottenness. Tradition­ ally this term has been used to describe the process of infection accompanied by the host's systemic inflammatory response. Based on that understanding, previous clin­ ical studies have been designed to include only patients with positive blood cultures [1, 2]. However, the frequent occurrence of a septic response without the demon­ stration of microorganisms in the circulation has led to a new definition and under­ standing of sepsis, mainly as the systemic response of the host to an often unde­ tectable microbiological or non-microbiological process [3]. The general consensus is that cytokines are central to the inflammatory response, particularly in sepsis. It is now known that not only Gram-negative but also Gram­ positive, viral, and fungal infections initiate the complex cascades of cytokine release. Probably the most important aspect of bacterial action is the release of toxic bacterial products. In particular endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria (see chap­ ter by Schade) and super antigens (see chapter by Neumann and Holzmann), as well as pore-forming toxins [4] from Gram-positive bacteria, induce cytokine formation. The importance of this cytokine release is evident from both diagnostic and thera­ peutic (mostly experimental) studies, and the action of cytokines may be the key to our understanding of the pathophysiology of the sepsis syndrome.

Keywords

Sepsis clinical trial cytokine gene therapy genetics immunomodulation inflammation intensive care metabolism nutrition research shock therapy tissue

Editors and affiliations

  • Heinz Redl
    • 1
  • Günther Schlag
    • 1
  1. 1.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical TraumatologyViennaAustria

Bibliographic information

  • DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8755-7
  • Copyright Information Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland 1999
  • Publisher Name Birkhäuser, Basel
  • eBook Packages Springer Book Archive
  • Print ISBN 978-3-0348-9759-4
  • Online ISBN 978-3-0348-8755-7
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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