© 2020

Cyber Defence in the Age of AI, Smart Societies and Augmented Humanity

  • Hamid Jahankhani
  • Stefan Kendzierskyj
  • Nishan Chelvachandran
  • Jaime Ibarra

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Cyber Defence & Critical National Infrastructure (CNI)

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 1-1
    2. Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 3-21
    3. Nishan Chelvachandran, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Yelda Shah, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 23-36
    4. Nishan Chelvachandran, Sonja Trifuljesko, Karolina Drobotowicz, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani, Yelda Shah
      Pages 57-69
  3. Augmented Humanity & Digital Society

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 71-71
    2. Liam Naughton, Herbert Daly
      Pages 73-93
    3. Anthonia Sagay, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 95-116
    4. Jaime Ibarra, Hamid Jahankhani, Jake Beavers
      Pages 117-131
    5. Gabriela Ahmadi-Assalemi, Haider Al-Khateeb, Carsten Maple, Gregory Epiphaniou, Zhraa A. Alhaboby, Sultan Alkaabi et al.
      Pages 133-158
    6. Yelda Shah, Nishan Chelvachandran, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani, Radovan Janoso
      Pages 159-176
  4. Technology of Cyber Attacks

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 177-177
    2. Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 179-198
    3. Stilyan Petrov, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 199-232
    4. Sergio F. de Abreu, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani
      Pages 267-288
    5. Petri Vähäkainu, Martti Lehto, Antti Kariluoto, Anniina Ojalainen
      Pages 289-315
  5. Smart Societies and Data Exploitation

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 317-317
    2. Gregory Epiphaniou, Mirko Bottarelli, Haider Al-Khateeb, Nikolaos Th. Ersotelos, John Kanyaru, Vinita Nahar
      Pages 319-345

About this book


This publication highlights the fast-moving technological advancement and infiltration of Artificial Intelligence into society. Concepts of evolution of society through interconnectivity are explored, together with how the fusion of human and technological interaction leading to Augmented Humanity is fast becoming more than just an endemic phase, but a cultural phase shift to digital societies. It aims to balance both the positive progressive outlooks such developments bring with potential issues that may stem from innovation of this kind, such as the invasive procedures of bio hacking or ethical connotations concerning the usage of digital twins. This publication will also give the reader a good level of understanding on fundamental cyber defence principles, interactions with Critical National Infrastructure (CNI) and the Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I) decision-making framework. A detailed view of the cyber-attack landscape will be garnered; touching on the tactics, techniques and procedures used, red and blue teaming initiatives, cyber resilience and the protection of larger scale systems. The integration of AI, smart societies, the human-centric approach and Augmented Humanity is discernible in the exponential growth, collection and use of [big] data; concepts woven throughout the diversity of topics covered in this publication; which also discusses the privacy and transparency of data ownership, and the potential dangers of exploitation through social media. As humans are become ever more interconnected, with the prolificacy of smart wearable devices and wearable body area networks, the availability of and abundance of user data and metadata derived from individuals has grown exponentially. The notion of data ownership, privacy and situational awareness are now at the forefront in this new age.


critical national infrastructure attack vectors insider threat data ownership red teaming privacy and security blue teaming purple teaming digital twins artificial intelligence augmented humanity cyber defence smart wearable devices big data data ownership smart societies

Editors and affiliations

  • Hamid Jahankhani
    • 1
  • Stefan Kendzierskyj
    • 2
  • Nishan Chelvachandran
    • 3
  • Jaime Ibarra
    • 4
  1. 1.Northumbria UniversityLondonUK
  2. 2.CyfortisWorcester ParkUK
  3. 3.Open Innovation HouseSaidot OYESPOOFinland
  4. 4.Northumbria UniversityLondonUK

About the editors

Hamid Jahankhani gained his PhD from the Queen Mary College, University of London. In 1999 he moved to the University of East London (UEL) to become the first Professor of Information Security and Cyber Criminology at the university in 2010. Over the last 15 years Jahankhani have also been involved in developing new and innovative programmes and introducing “block mode” delivery approach at UEL, including MSc Information Security and Computer Forensics, Professional Doctorate Information Security.

Jahankhani's principal research area for a number of years has been in the field of cyber security, information security and digital forensics. In partnership with the key industrial sectors, he has examined and established several innovative research projects that are of direct relevance to the needs of UK and European information security, digital forensics industries, Critical National Infrastructure and law enforcement agencies. Hamid have planned, proposed and managed several collaborative projects, and secured a substantial research income of up to £6m.

Jahankhani is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics,, International Journal of Electronic democracy,, both published by Inderscience and general chair of the annual International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). He has edited and contributed to over 15 books and has over 150 conference and journal publications together with Various BBC radio interviews. Jahankhani has supervised to completion 13 PhD and professional doctorate degree students and overseen 67 PhD students progressing. In summer 2017 Jahankhani was trained as the GCHQ “cyberist” to train the next generation of cyber security experts through GCHQ CyberFirst initiative.

Stefan Kendzierskyj is an experienced commercial director with over 25 years gained with a number of technology companies covering industries such as telecommunications, software development, outsourcing, publishing, eLearning and digital transformation. Stefan has a strategic approach when presenting solutions at C-Suite and Board level and finding innovative ways for businesses to transform their models and reach new markets. This has been in the form of collaborating with some high-profile Publishers, Associations and organisations that need to reach a global audience with their vision, messaging and business models; particularly in the healthcare and commercial sectors. As well as business acumen he has deep technical domain knowledge that helps to position and ensure fit for purpose solutions and advises organisations on change program methodology. Stefan also provides publisher services for the UK Disaster Victim Identification team and Interpol in the form of process tools to aid in investigation work for mass fatalities where the process of identifying victims of mass disaster may not be possible by visual recognition.

Kendzierskyj has research interests on blockchain and its application to industry, Internet of Things, methods of securing the privacy and transparency of data, technology and its interaction with humans/impact in smart societies.

Kendzierskyj is a Fellow of The RSA (The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) and a member of IEEE Standards Associations working groups. He was on the poster steering committee for the International Conference for Governance, Security and Sustainability (ICGS3-19) and presented his IEEE paper there. He holds a MSc in Cyber Security and has attained a level of Distinction for research into using blockchain as the mechanism for improving privacy, security and transparency of healthcare and clinical data. Stefan has also published a number of articles, conference papers, contributed book chapters to other publications around Industry 4.0, critical national infrastructure, cyber security practitioner's handbook and recent book publication regarding Blockchain and Clinical Trial: Securing Patient Data and is in the process of other publishing work and projects. Stefan is also a speaker at conferences or any thought leadership events.

Nishan Chelvachandran is a cybersecurity researcher with years of Operational Law Enforcement and Strategic Public Sector experience, specialising in fields such as Digital Forensics, High-Tech Crime and Intelligence; receiving multiple commendations from Senior Police Chiefs. He has worked at grassroots, tactical, strategic, organisational and national levels, developing solutions for managing change, training, recruitment and retention, and the standardisation of best practice.

Chelvachandran's professional interests lie in organisational consultancy and oversight, working at CxO/ C-Suite level leadership roles, to instil and steer overarching organisational and cultural change, to accommodate the future challenges that will face both industry and society. He also endeavours to collaborate with international researchers and subject matter experts from a diversity of multi-disciplinary backgrounds, to enrich the shared body of knowledge intrinsic to Cyber.

Chelvachandran's research interests include keyword and behavioural analytics, jurisdictional and legislation relating to cyber-operations and cyber-warfare, ethical frameworks for mass data collection, IoT, AI, surveillance and privacy.

He is a Fellow of The RSA (The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce). He is also a member of multiple IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Standards Associations working groups, drafting the P7000x series of ethics standards and the ECPAIS (Ethics Certification Program for Autonomous and Intelligent Systems). Nishan holds a MSc in Cybersecurity, for which he was awarded a distinction (4.0 GPA). He also holds a certification in Cyberwarfare, Surveillance and Security, and various Operational Policing Qualifications and Certifications. He has published several research papers and contributed book chapters relating to data analytics of open source big data to identify exploitation and radicalisation. He has presented his work at the International Conference for Governance, Security and Sustainability, and is publishing further work. He is developing streams for doctoral research and furthering the collective knowledge of wider Cybersecurity disciplines and industry.

Chelvachandran is a speaker at conferences and thought exploration events, has been invited to guest lecture at UK universities and help develop core modules of both undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs.

Jaime Ibarra is a cyber security researcher who wrote his first publication for IEEE on January of 2019 at the International Conference of Global Security, Safety and Sustainability hosted by Northumbria University London Campus. He is working towards his final MSc dissertation regarding Digital Forensic Investigation on the Internet of Medical Things and has contributed to scientific book chapters edited by Springer. He has industry experience and is involved in different aspects of cyber security research such as human behaviour, critical infrastructure, cybercrime, incident response and cyber security in healthcare.

Ibarra's interests lie in topics such as Biohacking, Society in an interconnected world, Blockchain, Cyber Security applied to medicine, Implantable devices in the human body and Risks Related to Computer and Information Security, Cybernetic espionage with the Support of Nanotechnology. A newcomer to the field, Jaime illustrates outstanding performance and a fast-growing ability to engage with different stakeholders; either in a technical or business context. He is currently supporting and mentoring other MSc students at Northumbria University; sharing his experience and knowledge throughout the programme, in order to help them accomplish and achieve outstanding results.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Cyber Defence in the Age of AI, Smart Societies and Augmented Humanity
  • Editors Hamid Jahankhani
    Stefan Kendzierskyj
    Nishan Chelvachandran
    Jaime Ibarra
  • Series Title Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications
  • Series Abbreviated Title Adv. Sciences, Technologies
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Computer Science Computer Science (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-030-35745-0
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-030-35748-1
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-030-35746-7
  • Series ISSN 1613-5113
  • Series E-ISSN 2363-9466
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages VIII, 450
  • Number of Illustrations 15 b/w illustrations, 72 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Artificial Intelligence
    Big Data
    Security Science and Technology
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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