This book gathers together a set of chapters covering recent development in optimization methods that are inspired by nature. The first group of chapters describes in detail different meta-heuristic algorithms, and shows their applicability using some test or real-world problems. The second part of the book is especially focused on advanced applications and case studies. They span different engineering fields, including mechanical, electrical and civil engineering, and earth/environmental science, and covers topics such as robotics, water management, process optimization, among others. The book covers both basic concepts and advanced issues, offering a timely introduction to nature-inspired optimization method for newcomers and students, and a source of inspiration as well as important practical insights to engineers and researchers.