This book provides readers with a detailed reference regarding two of the most important long-term reliability and aging effects on nanometer integrated systems, electromigrations (EM) for interconnect and biased temperature instability (BTI) for CMOS devices. The authors discuss in detail recent developments in the modeling, analysis and optimization of the reliability effects from EM and BTI induced failures at the circuit, architecture and system levels of abstraction. Readers will benefit from a focus on topics such as recently developed, physics-based EM modeling, EM modeling for multi-segment wires, new EM-aware power grid analysis, and system level EM-induced reliability optimization and management techniques.
- Reviews classic Electromigration (EM) models, as well as existing EM failure models and discusses the limitations of those models;
- Introduces a dynamic EM model to address transient stress evolution, in which wires are stressed under time-varying current flows, and the EM recovery effects. Also includes new, parameterized equivalent DC current based EM models to address the recovery and transient effects;
- Presents a cross-layer approach to transistor aging modeling, analysis and mitigation, spanning multiple abstraction levels;
- Equips readers for EM-induced dynamic reliability management and energy or lifetime optimization techniques, for many-core dark silicon microprocessors, embedded systems, lower power many-core processors and datacenters.