This volume collects contributions from the speakers at an INdAM Intensive period held at the University of Bari in 2017. The contributions cover several aspects of partial differential equations whose development in recent years has experienced major breakthroughs in terms of both theory and applications. The topics covered include nonlocal equations, elliptic equations and systems, fully nonlinear equations, nonlinear parabolic equations, overdetermined boundary value problems, maximum principles, geometric analysis, control theory, mean field games, and bio-mathematics. The authors are trailblazers in these topics and present their work in a way that is exhaustive and clearly accessible to PhD students and early career researcher. As such, the book offers an excellent introduction to a variety of fundamental topics of contemporary investigation and inspires novel and high-quality research.