© 2019

Muscle Injury in the Athlete

The Italian Consensus Conference Guidelines


  • Discusses new guidelines concerning the conservative treatment of muscle injuries based on a Consensus Conference

  • Presents a new system for muscle injuries classification linked to prognostic factors

  • Provides the state of the art based on EBM concerning the medical treatment of muscle injuries

  • Covers the most frequently used physio-kinesitherapy therapies for the conservative treatment of muscle injuries


Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvi
  2. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 1-34
  3. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 35-52
  4. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 53-72
  5. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 73-115
  6. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 117-153
  7. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 155-160
  8. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 161-192
  9. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 193-214
  10. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 215-243
  11. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 245-271
  12. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 273-287
  13. Piero Volpi, Gian Nicola Bisciotti
    Pages 289-299

About this book


This volume provides a cutting-edge analysis concerning the biology and aetiology, classification, clinical assessment and conservative treatment of lower limb muscle injuries in athletes. Muscle injuries are the most common trauma both in team and individual sports and are responsible for most of the time lost both in training and in competition: in professional football (soccer), they account for 30% and in track and field for 48% of all injuries recorded. Despite the considerable interest in this topic among clinicians and researchers, there is still no consensus regarding the etiopathogenesis, classification, clinical examination and treatment of muscle lesions.

Based on the first Italian Consensus Conference on guidelines for the conservative treatment of lower limb muscle injuries in athletes, which was held in April 2017 at Humanitas Clinic Institute in Milan, Italy under the auspices of the Italian Society of Arthroscopy, this comprehensive book addresses the main issues concerning muscle injuries, from biology and pathobiology to clinical evaluation and different treatment option, including the most frequently used physio-kinesitherapy therapies. It also presents a consensus classification of muscle injuries closely linked to prognostic factors. Written by international experts with diverse medical backgrounds, this book offers comprehensive practical guidance for orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians, athletic trainers, physiotherapists, sports science students, and physiatrists.


Muscle injuries ethiology Classification of muscle injuries Conservative treatment of muscle injuries Re-injuries Muscle strain Nerves regeneration Physio-kinesitherapy therapies Hematomas

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Head of Medical DepartmentF.C. InternazionaleMilanoItaly
  2. 2.FIFA Center of ExcellenceQatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine HospitalDohaQatar

About the authors

Piero Volpi is an Orthopedic Surgeon and Sports Medicine Specialist and Director of the Knee Surgery and Sport Traumatology Unit at Humanitas Clinical Institute IRCCS, Milan. He played professional football from the beginning of the 1970s until 1985 while maintaining his medical studies. He is now Head of Medical Staff FC Internazionale Milan, Italy, and he is Responsible Physician of the Italian Association of Football Players (AIC). He has also recently been appointed as member of U.E.F.A. Medical Committee. Dr. Volpi is Teaching Professor at the Specialty School of Orthopedics and Traumatology at the University of Milan. He is also Vice-President of Italian Arthroscopy Society (SIA) and member of several national and international scientific societies: Siot, Sigascot, Fmsi, Isakos, Esska, and Eka. He is the author of more than 300 publications and over 600 contributions, including book chapters, articles, and presentations to scientific national and international meetings. He is Editor in Chief of the Journal of Sports Traumatology and Member of Editorial Board of Medicina dello Sport Journal.

Gian Nicola Bisciotti is Physiologist Lead at Doha Orthopedic and Sports Medicine Hospital FIFA Center of Excellence. After a sports career that saw him engaged for more than 25 years in Judo, in 1992 he resumed his studies and he graduated in Science and Technology of Sports and Physical Activity at the University Claude Bernard in Lyon where he also achieved the Ph D in Biomechanics and Physiology of Exercise. This was a period of intense University engagement and collaborations with numerous academic institutions and sports federations. Since 1995 he also dedicated to tennis athletic training of professional players, participating to the biggest tournaments in the world and Olympic games in Sidney in 2000. From 1999 to 2009 he worked as Physical Trainer into the Internazionale FC Milan, where he started to be interested in sport rehabilitation. In 2009 he left Inter team and became Physiologist Lead at the Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, FIFA Center of Excellence in Doha. Since 2010 he also covers the role of Physical Trainer into the Algerian National Football Team, with which he participated to the 2010 World Championship in South Africa, 2014 Championship in Brasil, African Coup 2012 (Guinea), 2013 (Sud Africa) and 2017 (Gabon). With the Qatar National football team win the Gulf Cup in 2014 and participate at Asian Cup 2015 in Australia.. He has published over 300 articles of biomechanics, physiology, rehabilitation, and training methodology, many of them included in peer reviewed journals. Furthermore, he’s author of 22 books and three multi-media work in the field of sport medicine and sport physiology.

Bibliographic information

  • Book Title Muscle Injury in the Athlete
  • Book Subtitle The Italian Consensus Conference Guidelines
  • Authors Piero Volpi
    Gian Nicola Bisciotti
  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Hardcover ISBN 978-3-030-16157-6
  • Softcover ISBN 978-3-030-16160-6
  • eBook ISBN 978-3-030-16158-3
  • Edition Number 1
  • Number of Pages XVI, 299
  • Number of Illustrations 20 b/w illustrations, 176 illustrations in colour
  • Topics Conservative Orthopedics
    Sports Medicine
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors


“The book provides useful knowledge both at a glance and for more in-depth review, which makes it worthwhile for a wide variety of practitioners in sports medicine at multiple points in their careers. The authors target sports medicine and orthopedic physicians. This book can serve both seasoned practicing clinicians looking to deepen their knowledge and fellow-level physicians in the beginning of their sports medicine careers who want to better understand the fundamentals of muscle injuries.” (Jean Pierre Valette, Doody's Book Reviews, October 25, 2019)