© 2019

Structural Equation Models

From Paths to Networks


  • Presents structural equation models (SEM) development in a historical context for better understanding of commonly used methods

  • Answers questions on sample size for hypothesis tests, and comparative performance of various methods

  • Surveys new techniques for path analysis, guidelines for data preparation, and sample size calculation


Part of the Studies in Systems, Decision and Control book series (SSDC, volume 22)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-ix
  2. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 1-15
  3. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 17-38
  4. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 39-49
  5. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 51-65
  6. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 67-89
  7. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 91-106
  8. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 107-126
  9. J. Christopher Westland
    Pages 127-134
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 135-149

About this book


This new edition surveys the full range of available structural equation modeling (SEM) methodologies. The book has been updated throughout to reflect the arrival of new software packages, which have made analysis much easier than in the past. Applications in a broad range of disciplines are discussed, particularly in the social sciences where many key concepts are not directly observable. This book presents SEM’s development in its proper historical context–essential to understanding the application, strengths and weaknesses of each particular method. This book also surveys the emerging path and network approaches that complement and enhance SEM, and that are growing in importance. SEM’s ability to accommodate unobservable theory constructs through latent variables is of significant importance to social scientists. Latent variable theory and application are comprehensively explained and methods are presented for extending their power, including guidelines for data preparation, sample size calculation and the special treatment of Likert scale data. Tables of software, methodologies and fit statistics provide a concise reference for any research program, helping assure that its conclusions are defensible and publishable.


Structural Equation Models (SEM) Partial Least Squares (PLS) LISREL-AMOS Systems of Regression Equations techniques for path analysis treatment of Likert scale data Likert scale categorical data latent variable constructs latent variables likert scales likert scale data path analysis structural equation models computer fitting data preparation for structural equation models

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.Information & Decision SystemsUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

About the authors

J. Christopher Westland is Professor in the Department of Information & Decision Sciences at the University of Illinois – Chicago. He has a BA in Statistics and an MBA in Accounting from Indiana University and received his PhD in Computers and Information Systems from the University of Michigan. He has professional experience in the US as a certified public accountant and as a consultant in technology law in the US, Europe, Latin America and Asia. He has authored numerous academic papers and seven books: Global Electronic Commerce (MIT Press 2000); Global Innovation Management (Palgrave Macmillan 2nd ed 2017); Red Wired: China’s Internet Revolution (Marshall Cavendish, 2010); Structural Equation Modeling (Springer 2015); Financial Dynamics (Wiley 2003); Valuing Technology (Wiley 2002) and Statistical Auditing with R (forthcoming 2018). He is the Editor-in-Chief of Electronic Commerce Research (Springer) and has served on editorial boards of several other information technology journals including Management Science, ISR, ECRA, IJEC, and others. He has served on the faculties at the University of Michigan, University of Southern California, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Harbin Institute of Technology and other academic institutions. In 2012 he received High-Level Foreign Expert status in China under the 1000-Talents Plan and he is  currently Overseas Chair Professor at Beihang University. He has advised on patent, valuation and technology strategy for numerous technology firms.

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