Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Markus Broer, Yifan Bai, Frank Fonseca
    Pages 1-6 Open Access
  3. Markus Broer, Yifan Bai, Frank Fonseca
    Pages 7-17 Open Access
  4. Markus Broer, Yifan Bai, Frank Fonseca
    Pages 19-34 Open Access
  5. Markus Broer, Yifan Bai, Frank Fonseca
    Pages 35-70 Open Access
  6. Back Matter
    Pages 81-83

About this book


This open-access book focuses on trends in educational inequality using twenty years of grade 8 student data collected from 13 education systems by the IEA’s Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) between 1995 and 2015. While the overall positive association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and student achievement is well documented in the literature, the magnitude of this relationship is contingent on social contexts and is expected to vary by education system. Research on how such associations differ across societies and how the strength of these relationships has changed over time is limited. This study, therefore, addresses an important research and policy question by examining changes in the inequality of educational outcomes due to SES over this 20-year period, and also examines the extent to which the performance of students from disadvantaged backgrounds has improved over time in each education system.

Education systems generally aim to narrow the achievement gap between low- and high-SES students and to improve the performance of disadvantaged students. However, the lack of quantifiable and comprehensible measures makes it difficult to assess and monitor the effect of such efforts. In this study, a novel measure of SES that is consistent across all TIMSS cycles allows students to be categorized into different socioeconomic groups. This measure of SES may also contribute to future research using TIMSS trend data.

Readers will gain new insight into how educational inequality has changed in the education systems studied and how such change may relate to the more complex picture of macroeconomic changes in those societies. 


Educational inequality Large-scale assessment Educational achievement Socioeconomic status TIMSS Trends in Mathematics and Science Study Educational outcomes Academic achievement TIMSS data SES Open access Achievement gaps Macroeconomic context Mathematics achievement Science achievement International large-scale assessments Trend analysis Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) IEA

Authors and affiliations

  • Markus Broer
    • 1
  • Yifan Bai
    • 2
  • Frank Fonseca
    • 3
  1. 1.American Institutes for Reserach Washington DCUSA
  2. 2.American Institutes for Research Washington DCUSA
  3. 3.American Institutes for Research Washington DCUSA

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) 2019
  • License CC BY-NC
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Education Education (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-030-11990-4
  • Online ISBN 978-3-030-11991-1
  • Series Print ISSN 2366-1631
  • Series Online ISSN 2366-164X
  • Buy this book on publisher's site