© 2019

Subsistence Entrepreneurship

The Interplay of Collaborative Innovation, Sustainability and Social Goals

  • Vanessa Ratten
  • Paul Jones
  • Vitor Braga
  • Carla Susana Marques
  • Focuses on the interplay between subsistence, social and sustainable forms of entrepreneurship

  • Emphasizes the key characteristics of bottom of the pyramid and frugal forms of innovation

  • Focuses on collaborative forms of entrepreneurship in the global economy


Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-viii
  2. Vanessa Ratten, Paul Jones, Vitor Braga, Carla Susana Marques
    Pages 1-6
  3. Jerry Kolo, Nnamdi O. Madichie, Chris H. Mbah
    Pages 17-32
  4. Elisa Baraibar-Diez, María D. Odriozola, Ignacio Llorente, José Luis Fernández Sánchez
    Pages 51-67
  5. Scott Weaven, Lorelle Frazer, Mark Brimble, Kerry Bodle, Maurice Roussety, Park Thaichon
    Pages 69-87
  6. Talis J. Putnins, Arnis Sauka, Adriana Ana Maria Davidescu
    Pages 89-130
  7. Adriana Ana Maria Davidescu, Friedrich Schneider
    Pages 155-181
  8. Agnessa Shpakova, Viktor Dörfler, Jill MacBryde
    Pages 183-194
  9. Robyn Young, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven, Maurice Roussety, Park Thaichon
    Pages 195-213
  10. Janette Timms, Lorelle Frazer, Scott Weaven, Park Thaichon
    Pages 215-237

About this book


This book focuses on the role of subsistence entrepreneurs in creating social and sustainable business opportunities on the global marketplace. Subsistence entrepreneurs use scarce resources to create new business opportunities, often in developing or emerging economies. In addition, subsistence entrepreneurship is increasingly being used as a way to facilitate market entry for small and medium-sized business enterprises that focus on collaborative innovation. The interdisciplinary contributions gathered here will expand readers’ understanding of the nature and characteristics of subsistence entrepreneurs, as well as the challenges they face. The central connection between subsistence, sustainability and social entrepreneurship is also explored.



Research on subsistence entrepreneurship Sustainable entrepreneurship policies Environmental and ecological entrepreneurship Collaborative innovation models for small business Entrepreneurship vs. self-employment in emerging markets Barriers to entry for small businesses Ethical and social aspects of entrepreneurship

Editors and affiliations

  • Vanessa Ratten
    • 1
  • Paul Jones
    • 2
  • Vitor Braga
    • 3
  • Carla Susana Marques
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and MarketingLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.ICTECoventry UniversityCoventryUK
  3. 3.Polytechnic Institute of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

About the editors

Dr. Vanessa Ratten is the programme coordinator of the entrepreneurship and innovation degrees at La Trobe Business School (Australia). She has previously been on the business faculties of Deakin University, Duquesne University (Pittsburgh), Queensland University of Technology and the University of Queensland. She has guest edited several well-respected journals such as the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Journal of Management and Organization, Thunderbird International Business Review and International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. Dr Ratten has coedited six books on entrepreneurship including 'Sports Entrepreneurship' (Springer, 2018) and 'Knowledge, Learning and Innovation' (Springer, 2018).

Prof. Paul Jones is deputy director of the International Centre for Transformational Entrepreneurship and professor of entrepreneurship at Coventry University (UK). Prof. Jones is the editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, and associate editor for the International Journal of Management Education. He is an experienced researcher with a large publication portfolio including three edited books, 14 book chapters and 56 journal articles. He has guest edited special issues for journals such as the Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, Strategic Change and Education + Training. He is a senior Fellow of the Higher Education Academy (UK) and sits on the Board of Trustees of the Institute of Small Business and Entrepreneurship (UK). 

Vitor Braga is an associate professor at the School of Technology and Management of Felgueiras, Polytechnic of Porto (Portugal). He is the director of the business sciences BSc, the head of the business sciences department and the director of the MSc in International Management. His main research interests deal with entrepreneurship processes, such as co-operation, internationalization and innovation. He is also part of the entrepreneurship education project 'Enhancing Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Identity' which is coordinated by the University of Wisconsin and the Illinois State University and involves universities across 70 countries worldwide.

Carla Susana Marques is an associate professor at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, based in Vila Real, Portugal. 

Bibliographic information

Industry Sectors
Finance, Business & Banking


“The book on subsistence entrepreneurship edited by Vanessa Ratten, Paul Jones, Vitor Braga and Carla Susanna Marques captures in a comprehensive way the perspective of the entrepreneurs located at the bottom of the societal pyramid. This in itself is a very important contribution of the book, since these entrepreneurs have only lately moved into the focus of academic research. The chapters present a variety of cases and issues, which together enable the reader to better understand the opportunities and constraints of those entrepreneuring in the informal economy, often not recognized by the dominant mainstream of societies. The book definitely provides a valuable contribution to the public and academic discourse in the field.” (Sibylle Heilbrunn, Kinneret Academic College, Israel)

“This book on subsistence entrepreneurship tackles a new interesting area of entrepreneurship that is underdeveloped in the current literature. I highly recommend the book to anyone interested in the next horizon of entrepreneurship research that focuses on emerging societal areas including collaborative innovation and social change.” (Dr Sérgio Teixeira , Assistant Professor, University of Madeira, Funchal, Portugal )

“The book makes a strong case for more research on subsistence entrepreneurship and for a better understanding of the role of subsistence entrepreneurs in society. The chapters address relevant topics like collaborative innovation, sustainability and social goals. Drs. Vanessa Ratten, Paul Jones, Vitor Braga and Carla Marques include rich contributions by scholars from different countries and continents, which reflects the worldwide interest in this phenomenon!” (Dr. Sheela Pandey, Pennsylvania State University Harrisburg, Middletown, PA, USA)  

“The book edited by Dr Vanessa Ratten, Paul Jones, Vitor Braga and Carla Marques on Subsistence Entrepreneurship would be definitely worth reading for everyone. I recommend it for those who like to enrich their understanding of the subject.” (Prof. Justin Paul, Rollins College, Orlando, Florida, USA and  University of Puerto Rico, USA)