Sonographic Peripheral Nerve Topography

A Landmark-based Algorithm

  • Hannes Gruber
  • Alexander Loizides
  • Bernhard Moriggl

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiii
  2. Bernhard Moriggl, Alexander Loizides, Hannes Gruber
    Pages 1-5
  3. Alexander Loizides, Sebastian Schuhmayer, Bernhard Moriggl
    Pages 7-54
  4. Alexander Loizides, Sebastian Schuhmayer, Bernhard Moriggl
    Pages 55-109
  5. Alexander Loizides, Hannes Gruber, Philipp Koch, Sebastian Schuhmayer, Bernhard Moriggl
    Pages 111-143
  6. Hannes Gruber, Philipp Koch, Bernhard Moriggl
    Pages 145-155
  7. Hannes Gruber, Philipp Koch, Bernhard Moriggl
    Pages 157-223
  8. Back Matter
    Pages 225-228

About this book


This first of its kind richly illustrated book provides a tabular and schematic representation of all the peripheral nerves in the human body using a standardized landmark-based algorithm for the definition of the nerve’s “Point of optimal visibility (POV)”. In this atlas the nerves of the human body are depicted with high-frequent ultrasound probes with frequencies up to 24 MHz: it presents not only the “known” large nerves (N. ischiadicus, N. femoralis, N. medianus etc.), but also the tiny nerves you have learned in your anatomy sessions but forgotten in the course of time! Based on clear illustrations using palpaple/visible external and easily accessible internal landmarks, it offers “nerve sonographers” a clear sonoanatomic guidance on how to easily find the nerve. Additionally, it describes the exact positioning of the probe so that each nerve can be found at its point of optimal visibility. 

These mental maps for nerve sonographeurs are intended not only for beginners but also for “advanced” specialists requiring instructions on how to easily find even tiny peripheral nerves: especially for neurologists, anaesthesiologists, radiologists, pain practionioners, rheumatologists and surgeons who seek a clear standardized step by step manual on “Where do I find a nerve the easiest?”


Nerve sonography High frequent sonography point of optimal visibility (POV) Large nerves Tiny nerves external landmarks internal landmarks high-frequency probes

Editors and affiliations

  • Hannes Gruber
    • 1
  • Alexander Loizides
    • 2
  • Bernhard Moriggl
    • 3
  1. 1.Department RadiologieMedizinische Universität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Department RadiologieMedizinische Universität InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria
  3. 3.Clinical & Functional AnatomyMedical University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine
  • Print ISBN 978-3-030-11032-1
  • Online ISBN 978-3-030-11033-8
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
Industry Sectors
Health & Hospitals
Consumer Packaged Goods