© 2019

Chinese Criminal Entrepreneurs in Canada, Volume II

  • Focusses on how an Asian criminal network in Canada smuggled drugs and dominated the heroin drugs markets without even a formal structure

  • Fills a gap in the field of organised crime and mono-ethnic criminal networks

  • Speaks to people interested in: Drug Crime, Transnational Crime, Security, Policing and Law Enforcement, Migration Studies, Asian Organised Crime, and Criminal Network studies


Part of the Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security book series (TCCCS)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xiv
  2. Alex Chung
    Pages 1-19
  3. Alex Chung
    Pages 21-54
  4. Alex Chung
    Pages 109-134
  5. Alex Chung
    Pages 177-196
  6. Alex Chung
    Pages 197-228
  7. Alex Chung
    Pages 229-247
  8. Alex Chung
    Pages 249-276
  9. Alex Chung
    Pages 277-283
  10. Back Matter
    Pages 285-341

About this book


This book explores how the ‘new’ Asian criminal entrepreneurs in Canada, known as The Big Circle Boys (BCB), competitively dominated the Canadian heroin market in the 1990s without a formal organisation or explicit hierarchical structure. Drawing on the market resilience framework, it examines how the BCB smuggled drugs by using social capital, shared resources, and trust effectively through their ethnicity. How did they counter external security challenges and promote internal competitive cooperation? Were they able to resolve disputes peacefully by managing internal relations? These questions are answered through an analysis of their networking processes and illustrated in the structural properties and dynamics of their mono-ethnic criminal network. For the first time, the BCB players that contributed to the 2001 Canadian and Australian heroin droughts are revealed through intercepted telephone calls and court testimonies. It shows how the BCB collectively switched from heroin to ecstasy since the year 2000. The operation logistics of drug importation and local trafficking are scrutinised. This book speaks to those interested in how a collective of ethnic-Chinese career criminals succeeded and failed in the international drugs trade, particularly for scholars and students of social sciences disciplines.


Organised crime transnational crime mono-ethnic criminal network career criminals crime and networks global crime international crime drug crime migration asian criminal network law enforcement drug trafficking China crime Canada crime counterfeit criminal entrepreneurs violence gang asian criminology trafficking

Authors and affiliations

  1. 1.University College LondonLondonUK

About the authors

Alex Chung is Research Associate at University College London’s Department of Science, Technology, Engineering and Public Policy (UCL STEaPP). This two-volume series is based on his doctoral study undertaken at Oxford University, UK.

Bibliographic information