The Origin of a New Progenitor Stem Cell Group in Human Development

An Immunohistochemical-, Light- and Electronmicroscopical Analysis

  • Hubert Wartenberg
  • Andreas Miething
  • Kjeld Møllgård

Part of the Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology book series (ADVSANAT, volume 230)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xii
  2. Hubert Wartenberg, Andreas Miething, Kjeld Møllgård
    Pages 1-70
  3. Back Matter
    Pages 71-79

About this book


This book presents an overview of a new group of progenitor stem cells. Their origins were originally detected in light- and electron microscopical sections of plastic embedded human embryonal and fetal organs.

The distribution of these cells can result in a large quantity of ectopic stem cells. The observation of these ectopic stem cells leads us to postulate the existence of a basic wave of stem cell progenitors. This process proceeds earlier and independently from germ cell migration. This first wave of progenitor stem cell migration initially reaches the peri-aortal AMG-region (Aortal-Mesonephric-Gonadal region). From here, some of these progenitor cells enter the aorta, are distributed through the vascular system and become the embryonal stem cells (reserve cells) in many peripheral tissues. A second part delivers progenitor cells for the adrenal 'anlage'. Within the peripheral Zona definitiva of the adrenal cortex the progenitor cells multiplicate and subsequently leave the adrenal cortex through a gate of the capsule. The progenitor cells arrive at the pre-aortal sympathic plexus ('second brain'). Within the plexus ganglia they form new organ-like clusters, the paraganglia. In a second process the progenitor cells (Chromaffine cells) enter sympathetic nerve bundles. Here an 'axonal migration' starts, which guides the progenitor cells to several peripheral organs. During this migration process the stem cells develop into their final state. In the adrenal cortex the ingrowing nerves guide the stem cells to the adrenal medulla. In the pancreas the ingrowing nerve fibers guide the stem cells to the islets. 

These newly detected stem cells represent a specific developmental step which is found only in humans. 


Progenitor stem cells AMG-region Zona definitiva Para-aortal plexus Paraganglia Autonomic nervous system Guided axonal migration Pancreas Gonadal and Intestine stem cells Stem cells II, APUD-system Teratoma

Authors and affiliations

  • Hubert Wartenberg
    • 1
  • Andreas Miething
    • 2
  • Kjeld Møllgård
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of AnatomyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of AnatomyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany
  3. 3.Department of Cellular and Molecular MedicineUniversity of CopenhagenKøbenhavn NDenmark

Bibliographic information

  • DOI
  • Copyright Information Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
  • Publisher Name Springer, Cham
  • eBook Packages Medicine Medicine (R0)
  • Print ISBN 978-3-030-02049-1
  • Online ISBN 978-3-030-02050-7
  • Series Print ISSN 0301-5556
  • Series Online ISSN 2192-7065
  • Buy this book on publisher's site
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