© 1990

Virus Variability, Epidemiology and Control

  • Edouard Kurstak
  • R. G. Marusyk
  • F. A. Murphy
  • M. H. V. Van Regenmortel

Part of the Applied Virology Research book series (AVIR, volume 2)

Table of contents

  1. Front Matter
    Pages i-xvii
  2. Introduction

    1. E. Kurstak, A. Hossain
      Pages 1-7
  3. Genome and Antigenic Variability of Retroviruses

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 9-9
    2. John M. Coffin
      Pages 11-33
    3. A. Hossain, A. Al-Tuwaijri, C. Kurstak, E. Kurstak
      Pages 55-60
    4. David L. Huso, Opendra Narayan
      Pages 61-73
    5. Matthew A. Gonda
      Pages 75-98
    6. Susan Carpenter, Leonard H. Evans, Martin Sevoian, Bruce Chesebro
      Pages 99-115
  4. Genome and Antigenic Variability of Myxoviruses and Paramyxoviruses

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 117-117
    2. Alan P. Kendal, Nancy J. Cox, Maurice W. Harmon
      Pages 131-141
    3. Kathleen van Wyke Coelingh
      Pages 143-157
    4. P. H. Russell, A. C. R. Samson, D. J. Alexander
      Pages 177-195
  5. Variability of Picornaviruses and Rotaviruses

    1. Front Matter
      Pages 197-197
    2. Olen M. Kew, Baldev K. Nottay, Rebeca Rico-Hesse, Mark A. Pallansch
      Pages 199-221
    3. Esteban Domingo, Mauricio G. Mateu, Miguel A. Martínez, Joaquín Dopazo, Andrés Moya, Francisco Sobrino
      Pages 233-266
    4. G. W. Both, S. C. Stirzaker, C. C. Bergmann, M. E. Andrew, D. B. Boyle, A. R. Bellamy
      Pages 267-290

About this book


Virus Variability and Impact on Epidemiology and Control of Diseases E. Kurstak and A. Hossain I. INTRODUCTION An important number of virus infections and their epidemic developments demonstrate that ineffec­ tiveness of prevention measures is often due to the mutation rate and variability of viruses (Kurstak et al., 1984, 1987). The new human immunodeficiency retroviruses and old influenza viruses are only one among several examples of virus variation that prevent, or make very difficult. the production of reliable vaccines. It could be stated that the most important factor limiting the effectiveness of vaccines against virus infections is apparently virus variation. Not much is, how­ ever, known about the factors influencing and responsible for the dramatically diverse patterns of virus variability. II. MUTATION RATE AND VARIABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL VIRUSES Mutation is undoubtedly the primary source of variation, and several reports in the literature suggest that extreme variability of some viruses may be a consequence of an unusually high mutation rate (Holland et al., 1982; Domingo et al., 1985; Smith and Inglis, 1987). The mutation rate of a virus is defined as the probability that during a single replication of the virus genome a particular nucleotide position is altered through substitution, deletion, insertion. or recombination. Different techniques have been utilized to measure virus mutation rates, and these have been noted in the extent of application to different viruses.


Antigen avian influenza development epidemiology evolution immunodeficiency infection infections molecular epidemiology prevention protein retroviruses vaccine virology virus

Editors and affiliations

  • Edouard Kurstak
    • 1
  • R. G. Marusyk
    • 2
  • F. A. Murphy
    • 3
  • M. H. V. Van Regenmortel
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.University of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.Center for Disease ControlAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Institute of Molecular and Cellular BiologyStrasbourgFrance

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